The Mobile Units Command is the Gendarmerie command responsible for safeguarding public order and public security in the contest of civil protection operations. The task of the Command is to show to the citizens that the Gendarmerie is not matter which can be joked. Its function is to ensure public order, at the present state and perspective.
The Command is in charge of directing and employing all mobile units and subordinate commands: this means that the Command gathers together both riot units and urban/rural security, combat and counter-insurgency units, while the Special Intervention Group is under the pure frontline units command (because the special skills required) and the Counter Terrorist Unit is under the Military Police Command (because the main area of intervention, the eastern occupied zones, are partly under control of Military Police). The Mobile Units Command is headed by a Captain General, assisted by a Lieutenant General as Deputy Commander and Chief of Staff. It has four components, two of whom tasked with counter-insurgency or combat duties and two in charge of riot control :
- Central Command
- M.U.C. Staff - Logistics
- Heavy Riot Intervention Group (HEIRUG)
- 3 urban warfare regiments
- 1 Special Riot Control regiment
- 3 Regimental Combat Teams
- 28 Regional Mobile Groups
- 28 Anti-Banditism Units
- 28 Special Antiterrorism Companies
- 56 Alert Battalions
- 28 Spearhead Battalions
- 56 Mobile Battalions
- 56 Special Support Companies
- 56 First Aid Units
- 56 Research and Intervention Groups
Overall organization Edit
The Mobile Units Command is organized following a centralized - but "horizontal" - way. The M.U.C. Central Command and the Command Staff command and direct together and jointly all units, while the central HEIRUG does not command Regional Mobile Groups which, in turn, do not command Mobile Battalions. This allows the direct subordination of all 89 major commands to the M.U.C. Central Command and to the Command Staff without any intermediary body.
Command Staff Edit
The Mobile Units Command Staff - Logistics provides the logistical coordination of all departments and operational direction of the movable central departments. It is headed by a Lieutenant General.
Heavy Intervention Riot Units Group Edit
The Heavy Intervention Riot Units Group (He.I.R.U.G.) is the formation responsible to intervene in such situation that are beyond every control, immediately before to deploy combatant formation. The RIUG is a Division-level formation and is composed of:
- Divisional Staff;
- 1st Riot Brigade;
- 1st Urban Warfare Regiment;
- 2nd Urban Warfare Regiment;
- 3rd Urban Warfare Regiment;
- 4th Special Riot Control Regiment;
- 2nd Riot Brigade;
- 5th Regimental Combat Team;
- 6th Regimental Combat Team;
- 7th Regimental Combat Team.
- 1st Riot Brigade;
The HEIRUG is the last resource for the protection of public security, before having to deploy military forces of the Imperial Gendarmerie Corps; the HEIRUG is organizationally part of Mobile Units Command, but in times of war it is placed under Military Operations Command. The employment ratio is similar to Spearhead Battalions' ratio.
Alongside the Regimental Combat Teams, which are organized as Army RCTs are, there are four regiments focused on urban public order. The latter ones are made up of 20 battalions:
- 13 Special Police Operations Battalions
- 5 Mounted Gendarmerie Battalions
- 1 K-9 Battalion
- 1 Ostensive Patrol Battalion
Each regiment consists of 5 battalions and provides logistical and administrative support:
- 1st Urban Warfare Regiment: 4 special police operations battalions and 1 mounted battalion;
- 2nd Urban Warfare Regiment: 4 special police operations battalions and 1 mounted battalion;
- 3rd Urban Warfare Regiment: 4 special police operations battalions and 1 mounted battalion;
- 4th Special Riot Control Regiment: 1 special police operations battalion, 2 mounted battalion, K-9 battalion, 1 ostensive patrol battalion
Special Police Operatons Battalions Edit
The 13 Special Police Operations Battalions (SPOBs) are the main line force within the HEIRUG and constitute the three Urban Warfare Regiments, with K-9 and Ostensive Patrol Battalions being part of the Special Riot Control Regiment. Although the SPOBs are deployed in much more serious situations even than ones in which Spearheads Battalions are employed, they are much lighter, and the operational approaches are different too. That lighter equipment and organization is due to the different mission assigned. SPOBs are designed to destroy any urban revolt and narcotraffickers in peacetime, while Spearhead battalions are used only in wartime (antiparatroopers and anti fith-column operations) or during civil wars or enormous uprisings when even the chance of a rapid peace enforcment has been vanished by the events.
Due to these differences, the organization of a SPOB is the following one:
- Command and Communications Platoon: Carries out command and support activities and occupation and community development managment
- 1st Company (special patrol): Carries out assaults, raids and manhunts in shantytowns or boroughs in the hands of crime or rebellion
- 1st Special patrol Platoon
- 2nd Special patrol Platoon
- 2nd Company (special patrol): Carries out assaults, raids and manhunts in shantytowns or boroughs in the hands of crime or rebellion
- 1st Special patrol Platoon
- 2nd Special patrol Platoon
- 3rd Company (riot control): Riot control carried out by SPOBs includes brutal charges (often in conjunction with mounted battalions) and encircling tatics
- 1st Riot control Platoon
- 2nd Riot control Platoon
- 4th Company (riot control): Riot control carried out by SPOBs includes brutal charges (often in conjunction with mounted battalions) and encircling tatics
- 1st Riot control Platoon
- 2nd Riot control Platoon
5th Company (special operation): Special operations include dirty targeted killings and death squads operations
- Team of tactical squad
- Team of snipers squad
- Team of bombs disposal squad
- 6th K-9 Company: The K-9 Company is deployed mostly in conjunction with other companies, especially Riot Control, but also special patrol companies.
- 1st K-9 Platoon (Attack dogs)
- 2nd K-9 Platoon (Attack dogs; detection dogs)
It is keen to underline that the primary occupation is the "special patrol", and all the personnel is trained primarily into that specialty.
The Special Police Operations Battalions' traditional uniform is black. The use of all-black uniforms is a psychological weapon to intimidate the enemy, giving soldiers the appearance of a inhumane being. Sometimes in daylight wood operations, it is worn a digitized camouflage green. It is considered the most suitable profile "multitasking" unit, which operates both in the woods as the slums in the urban environment.
Hammerheads and operational methods Edit
SPOBs has armored vehicles, popularly known as "Hammerheads", used mainly in operations where there are conflicts with enemies who employ heavy weapons. Tanks have a capacity for a garrison of 12 men, and have their own weapons, and its power to fire up the guns of the garrison. The chassis used is considered inadequate by specialists, since the weight of the vehicle, overcomes the 8 tonnes gross weight for which the chassis was originally designed. However, the "Hammerhead" is preferred due to the higher mobility than that offered by military armoured troops carriers: further, traditional armoured troop carriers are too noisy, and they could be heard before they can be seen, even during daytime. Although Battalions are fully mechanized, each SPOB deploys only five Hammerheads: the remaining force can be transported abroad armoured carriers, but the latter ones are used only during Hammerhead shortages.
The main purpose of armour is to protect the lives of the elements of the garrison, and breaking down physical barriers used by opposing forces. Hammerheads are essential in supporting the rescue of trapped and Gendarmerie units in the removal of injured of scenario of confrontation.
The danger for SPOB Gendarmes who enter the slums is constant, and the likelihood of falling into action or remain crippled is such that raids are technically known as "invasions" and are carried out using real military techniques, with an Hammerhead to open the road and the Gendarmerie armed with assault rifles in tow.
After the invasions and the fights against narcotraffickers, SPOBs establish a semi-permanent occupation in order to protect and guarantee lives against tail flicks. The first phase of pacification process includes extensive weapons searches and removals, with criminal fighters who resist: this phase is considered as dangerous as the attack against traffickers strongholds themselves.
In their police operations SPOBs semi-secretly admit the common practice of torture for intelligence collection. After the weapons searches and removals, there is the rapprochement phase with the community, based upon the showing of need of SPOBs. Meetings with the local communities are summoned: in these meetings, the Commander explains why the Gendarmerie has entered into slums or criminal burougs and what measures will be taken: curfews, reviews, transportation stops, additional searches: civilians are requested to partecipate and help. Soon after a large-scale operation, the occupying force always conducts a Mass in the community, after which Gendarmes start provisional community development activities. These activities will be further developed by public social assistance workers and employées.
However, often the occupation and development activities are just poorly tolerated, if not worse, especially if the community that suffers the attack is a long-established political-criminal stronghold, and the SPOB members (but also of most Gendarmes) attitude towards "sensitve buroughs" (i.e. buroughs, slums, dirty suburb, etc. which are criminals' bases) inhabitants are not fine: the general opinion is that whoever comes from a "sensitive burough" is a criminal and in the best circumstance is a suspect.
Selection and training Edit
The data that distinguishes Battalions is the young age of their members, who have an average age of just 25 years, being the minimum age to become part of the unit at just 22 years after serving at least two years within the M.U.C. Such a young age is due to the need to recruit staff easily be conditioned and motivated by a blind obedience to the regime: this obedience is required since many of criminal gangs have also political connotations, of all types. All applicants are nevertheless subject to a physical, psychological and ideological screening. It follows a rigorous training in the specialty, which makes sure that about three to five percent of applicants could pass.
The SPOB philosophy and training reflect the context of urban war, which resembles that of military special forces much more than any other Gendarmerie institution.
In the first part of the training program, candidates are trained under extreme pressure and physical punishments, in order to eliminate the weakest elements: the initial pressure lasts until they quit - and in that case they are reassigned to their previous units without any blame - or they hold up. SPOB training focuses great attention on the ability of remaining calm during high-stress situations: candidates have to resist while, after intense and aggressive training activities, they are slapped in the face and incited to quit by SPOB instructors or Gendarmes; if they quit or react, they fail the training.
In the second part of the training program, the remaining candidates are taught how to shoot, move and invade an urban or semi-urban environment efficiently and safely, and in strategy classes.
The "Knife In The Skull" is the SPOB logo and motto. Their symbol is a skull flanked by crossed knife and a pistols. The pistols represent the most basic police weapons and the skull crossed by the knife represents the violent death: thus, these two weapons flanked on the skull mean the SPOB victory over the death.
K-9 Battalions Edit
The K-9 Battalions (K9B) are the main K-9 force within the HEIRUG and is part of the Special Riot Control Regiment. The K-9 Battalion is also splitted in support of other Battalions (mostly SPOBs), but in larger operations could be deployed entirely. In the largest operations, where the whole HEIRUG is unitarily depolyed, the K-9 Battalion co-ordinates all the dog-related operations.
The K9B structure is the following:
- Command and Communications Platoon
- 1st Company (special patrol): Carries out assaults, raids and manhunts in shantytowns or boroughs in the hands of crime or rebellion
- 2nd Company (special patrol): Carries out assaults, raids and manhunts in shantytowns or boroughs in the hands of crime or rebellion
- 3rd K-9 Company: the K-9 Company is deployed mostly in conjunction with other companies, especially Riot Control, but also special patrol companies
- 4th K-9 Company: the K-9 Company is deployed mostly in conjunction with other companies, especially Riot Control, but also special patrol companies
- 5th K-9 Company: the K-9 Company is deployed mostly in conjunction with other companies, especially Riot Control, but also special patrol companies
- 6th K-9 Company: the K-9 Company is deployed mostly in conjunction with other companies, especially Riot Control, but also special patrol companies
Mounted Gendarmerie Battalions Edit
Mounted Gendarmerie are Gendarmerie who patrol on horseback. They are employed in crowd control because of their mobile mass and height advantage. The five Mounted Gendarmerie Battalions are employed for riot duty, where the horse serves to intimidate those whom it is desired to disperse through its larger size, or may be sent in to snatch trouble makers or offenders from the crowd.
They are equipped with special riot shields and longer batons.
Regional Mobile Group Edit
Regional Groups are detatchments gathered on regional basis, consisting of several sub-units, located in the headquarters of the Group Commands but directed directly by Mobile Unit Command. They are specially trained and have the best equipment available. Their function is to provide reinforcement and support to provincial Battalions, both for serious issues of public order and for tasks of civil protection, and to establish an independent movement and manouver mass. For what regards administrative and support tasks, in each Regional Mobile Group is present an Administrative and Support Battalion, organized on the same guidelines of Administrative Office and Support Company of Mobile Battalions. These Battalions are responsible for the whole Regional Mobile Group, supporting both Alert Battalions and SACs and ABUs.
The operational arm of Regional Mobile Groups are the two Alert Battalions assigned to each Regional Mobile Group. Each Alert Battalion is organized as it follows:
- Command platoon
- Headquarters and staff company with: 1 signals platoon, 1 engineer platoon, 1 chemical platoon, 1 reconnaissance platoon, 1 transport platoon, 1 supply platoon, 1 medical section
- Four Public Order companies: one mechanized company in wheeled armoured personnel carriers (mostly Rhino 8836) and three motorized companies in trucks. All Companies are equipped and trained for riot duties, but they can operate in anti-guerrilla warfare.
- Support company: 1 anti-tank platoon, 1 artillery platoon, 1 mortar platoon
Special Antiterrorism Companies Edit
The Special Antiterrorism Companies are established under the Regional Mobile Groups (and not under the single Alert Battalions) to swiftly countering terrorist acts and subversion, protecting vulnerable targets both civilian and military, and give special support to combat serious crime. The Company is organized into Special Antiterrorism Squad, teams of a few elements that have also available highly flexible aircraft.
Anti-Banditism Units (ABU) Edit
The Anti-Banditism Units are battalion-strengh units used to make more effective control of inaccessible areas of the territory. They carry out control over the territory, with particular reference to search for fugitives and seized and rescue operations in case of public disaster, search and rescue missing persons. Every Anti Banditism Unit depends on the Regional Mobile Group responsible for ABU's location.
Every ABU consists of:
- An Advanced Patrol Company, to support local patrols, with patrol and public order tasks: it includes at least a POE (Public Order Enforcement) K-9 Squad (attack and guard dogs).
- An Helicopter Research Flight, for control of territory to the integration of territorial units.
In the Anti Banditism Units instructional path is not included in the achievement of the patent of Military Parachutist, and this is the only major difference between the 4th Military Police Group and the Anti Banditism Units.
Dress detects the "close relationship" between the two units: both wear the same camouflage with which the A.B.U. wear a red beret (instead of the maroon beret for paratroops) that, during operation, is replaced by a camouflage hat. Even the armoury is very similar to that of the "Etruria" Group.
The training of the candidate ABU Gendarmes takes about six weeks and is held at the 4th Military Police Group "Etruria". The process is virtually identical to what they have to support those of "Etruria": air-land co-ordination tatics by helicopter, heli-landing, lowered with rope, concepts to orient and move on rough and impassable terrain without a trace, and finally, the most advanced counter-insurgency techniques and those of survival in hostile territory.
The whole Anti-Banditism force consists of more than 11,000 Gendarmes.
Spearhead Battalions Edit
The Gendarmerie deploys on the territory the so-called "Spearhead Battalions". These units are designed for almost-pure war purposes, and therefore with heavy weaponry that must also fulfill the defensive duties in the event of external invasion. These units are not formally part of Mobile Units Command, belonging to the Military Operations Command, but they are co-ordinated by the M.U.C. in peacetimes, whilist they are subject to M.O.C. in times of war.
Containment and Remedial Action Companies Edit
The Containment and Remedial Action Companies (CRAC) are units of the Gendarmerie trained to deal with politically sensitive mass demonstrations. The Companies are formed with personnel drawn each time on ad hoc basis from the "Military Operations Command". These units are not formally part of Mobile Units Command, but they are under a mixed chain of command; they are co-ordinated by the M.U.C. in peacetimes, whilist they are subject to M.O.C. in times of war. The CRACs represent a functional skimming between personnel of the Gendarmerie. The most convinced, the most motivated, the more determined they are transferred and trained in CRACs.
These units of the Gendarmerie are present in the most dramatic moments. They are most notably known for an infamy gained in brutal and sometimes lethal actions of quelling civil rights protests and riot control. the CRACs are designed to instill a substantial fear and dolorous resentment, while, when formed, the Provisional Special Companies they are tasked with particularly though but ordinary missions.
The idea is that there is an insuperable limit in the management of public order, after which the "citizen" becomes an "enemy".
Mobile Battalions Edit
Mobile Battalions are units located in operational areas of ten provinces each, commanded by officers of the Mobile Units Command, operating under the management of Quaestor, which in turn requires action. In particularly important or highly populated areas may be more Battalions. Battalions protect public order and provide regular assistance during natural disasters. The basic unit is the team of nine elements commanded by a Superintendent. The complex unit is a company composed of 20 teams and the vehicles platoon.
Training includes exercises with amphibious vehicles and water cannons, sessions of athletics and martial arts. During the simulations, the Gendarmes suffer throwing petrol bombs, to accustom them to turn them off with fire-retardant gloves.
Each Mobile Battalion deploys three line Companies, with two specialized company-sized units. This leads to an ordinary situation where the operational companies, if deployed alone, are not enough to mantain and keep the public order. The lack of personnel leads to a double strategy: on one hand, in case of traditional and conservative approaches, both Special Support Company and RIG Company are lined as ordinary Companies; on the other hand, in case of availability of security intelligence data and of innovative approaches, operational Companies are relegated in a support position and both SSC and RIG-Company are the real playmakers.
Basic organization Edit
All Mobile Battalions are organized in:
- Command Unit, consisting of 5 men: Commander, Deputy Cmmander, 1 Standard Bearer (Brigadier), 1 Trumpeteer (Brigadier), 1 Clerk (Superintendent);
- Administrative Office (30 men: Commander, Deputy Commander, 28 Clerks): the commander is at least a Chef d'Escadron;
- General Affairs Office and Archive: manages the activities related to recruitment under the personnel, attends to correspondence with other offices and agencies, the preparation of statistics and reports on the situation logistical and operational Battalion, instructs the disciplinary practices and care any other task related to the function of direction.
- Personnel Office: covers identification documents, personnel housing in barracks, updates matriculation. It also draws up reports and health practices, filling in the appropriate communications and statistics.
- Training Office: manages training activity. In particular, the Training Office manages the shooting training.
- Support Company (150 men)
- Health Team
- Motorization section: the Section manages the practices relating to the allocation, maintenance and change of vehicles, the accrual accounting of fuel and lubricants provided and in stock. The Section is also involved in road accidents, "veichle hospitalization" at the Gendarmerie Ordnance Main Repair and Factory Directorate facilities and training of vehicle drivers.
- Telecommunications Section: takes care as required of messaging, data transmission and accounting details, the consultation of archives and files to magnetic and tasks of the computer industry; the Radio Operational Room performs the service in shifts 24 hours, providing radio links between detachments and battalions. It is also in constant radio contact with the S.O. the Provincial Command.
- Accounting Office: it is headed by an official of the Civil Administration of the Interior (ranking between Sectional Councillor and Deputy Divisional Director) who also directs the Funds Section. The Office manages the obligations relating to the remuneration of Gendarmes, teaches practices related to pensions and performs tax assistance.
- Section Logistics: takes care of the needs of the catering, the social and recreational activities, as well as maintenance. It is divided into Provisioning Office, Clothing and Equipment Storage and Armory.
- Provisioning Office: provides management of the service canteen and its accounting, manages maintenance of equipment, disinfection of the premises and relationships with suppliers.
- Clothing and Equipment Storage: the Storage ensures the procurement, storage, inventory, distribution, pick-up and put out all kinds of clothing, equipment and armament.
- 3 Operational Companies
- 20 Teams (10 men each): The riot team has 1 Team Chief, 8 Gendarmes equipped with shields and batons and 1 Gendarme equipped with grenade launcher
- Veichles Platoon (40 men)
- Special Support Company
- Research and Intervention Group Company
- First Aid Unit
The command is usually entrusted to a Gendarmerie Lieutenant Colonel, who uses a Deputy Commander, in the rank of Commandant.
In each Mobile Battalion a platoon is composed of specialists of NBC defense and must be present a sufficient number of agents-trumpeter; the latter is needed because any charge must be preceded by three blasts on the trumpet.
The armoured troop carrier Rhino 8836 is also assigned to the Battalion for the maintenance of public order. Since it is classified as tank and not as armored vehicle, they can be used by Battalions only with permission of the Minister of the Interior.
Because it is a paramilitary use vehicle, its use results in the elevation of the intensity of the clash. Usually, if permission is granted, the use of firearms is allowed.
Provisional Special Companies Edit
In case of major events or rallies, with probable riot occurence, some Provisional Special Companies within Mobile Battalions may be formed. The staff of the Provisional Special Companies is chosen by careful selection, both in terms of physical and, in particular, from the psychic resistance. Psychologists have the task of ascertaining the mental balance, the ability of self-control and resistance to stress. The staff training is aimed at overcoming the resistance they meet, but at stoppping after a successful overcoming of such resistance.
Companies are often equipped with special Provisional experimental equipment such as bodices more padded and flame retardant, heavier helmets, with radios that allow every Gendarme to speak with the unit mates.
When formed, these Provisional Special Companies they are tasked with particularly though but ordinary missions, while the CRACs are designed to instill a substantial fear and dolorous resentment.
Research and Intervention Groups Edit
The presence of a parallel system of protesters who ignores those who organized the event because it supports those who parade, but then pursues other objectives, persuaded the management of public order to use small mobile patrols, coordinated from above and observers in civilian clothes, who do not follow the procession or oversee statically sensitive targets and barricade the streets, but moving in the area surrounding the route of the demonstration chasing groups to be neutralized.
The 2008-established "Research and Intervention Groups" apply a form of urban low-intensity counterinsurgency that can surprise the enemy with ambushes and sudden raids. The Gendarmes RIGs advance in single file and then taking a sudden popping up out of nowhere to nab protesters, to attack isolated, small, confused and scattered groups. RIG Gendarmes They hide behind corners, squatting between the parked cars and street furniture.
RIG personal equipment consists of a special reinforced suit, helmet and gas mask, baton locked behind back, dozens of incapacitating, blinding and deafening grenades and powerful chili powder spray launcher.
The Gendarmes are trained arrest targeted and are able to slip through actions lightning in the procession to grab one or two demonstrators and dragging them on. These groups at the end of the processions penetrate groups of protesters who lingered in battles with patrols of 5-6 men. Two direct on target and others around protection that make their way.
The deployment of RIGs requires an extensive preemptive intelligence work.
Special Support Companies Edit
Special Support Companies are used to have adequate reinforcement contingent to enable local commands to implement extraordinary territory monitoring services in order to resolve critical situations. During the operations these Companies depend on the Gendarmerie of the Province in which they are held. Each Special Support Company is composed of 200 soldiers specialized on self-defense and disarming techniques, operational shooting and emergency and riot control techniques. They are often flanked by POE K-9 Squads (Guard and detection dogs).
First Aid Units Edit
In order to cope with emergencies in case of public calamity, in all Mobile Battalions is established, if necessary, a special Relief Platoon, previously trained and provided with rescue and emergency veichles and materials that provide initial assistance to affected populations of waiting the rest of civil defence instrument.
Public Order services Edit
The Public Order service is governed by a special Quaestor's Order, which regulates all the roles of employees in service, including Officers.
The Head of Service is always in civilian clothes, as well as are those of the local Political Bureau and the Detective Department who may be present. All others wear the uniform. Only Officer identified by the Quaestor in his Order as "Head of Service" commands the service. The other officers are under him in the roles specified in the order: they have command of their units, but are subordinate to the Head of Service.
The Head of Service directs the service by giving rules on the objective to be pursued. The commander of the unit but is responsible for the practical part of the service.
If there is more of a team of the unit it is called contingent: so when there are several teams there is the need of a figure that commands the teams and acts as an intermediary with the Head of Service. If there are few teams the commander is an Inspector, if the teams are at least five, the commander is an officer.
In handling violent demonstrations and disturbances, riot units are deployed en masse and individual action is strictly forbidden. Each Gendarme wears a radio with an earpiece to hear commands given simultaneously to the formation. Riot dress consists of a field-type jacket, which covered several pieces of body armor and includes a corselet hung from the waist, an aluminum plate down the spine, and shoulder pads. Armored gauntlets cover the hands and forearms. Helmets have faceplates and flared padded skirts down the back to protect the neck. The ranks carry 1.2-meter shields to protect against stave and rocks. Specially designed equipment includes water cannons, armored vans, and mobile tunnels for protected entry into seized buildings.
Units are maintained in virtually self-sufficient compounds and trained to work as a coordinated force. Officers live in dormitories within riot Gendarmerie barracks compounds. Training is constant and focuses on physical conditioning, mock battles, and tactical problems. A military atmosphere prevails—dress codes, behavior standards, and rank differentiations are more strictly adhered to than in the territorial Gendarmerie, although also the territorial organization is heavily influenced by the military nature of the Gendarmerie.
Procedures of public order service Edit
When, at meetings or gatherings in a public place, events take place or seditious cries or damaging the prestige of authority, or that may endanger public order or discipline, or when in meetings or in assemblages predicted are committed crimes, meetings and gatherings can be dissolved.
The exhibition of flags, emblems or symbols of subversion or rebellion or disdain toward the state, government or authority is always considered seditious event.
When it is necessary dissolve a meeting, or the people gathered assembrate are invited to dissolve by the Gendarmerie officers or NCOs. If the call remains without effect, the dissolution is ordered with three distinct formal notices, each preceded by a trumpet blast.
If the three injunctions remain without effect or they can not be made ??for revolt or opposition, the Head of Service sort that the meeting or gathering is dissolved by force.
"Political policing" mentality and approach Edit
Both predominant mentality and operational approach are heavily influenced by the political characterization of the whole Empire of Jinavia. The Empire is politically oriented and does have an official ideology; however, the Empire is not a totalitarian State or polity nor the Jinavian intimate political and social structure could tolerate a totalitarian asset. Riot control follows this setting: although most rallies and demonstrations are carried out by opponents to the Imperial system, both the predominant ideology and contrast approach do not deny, at least in theory, the right to demonstrate. However, within the whole Gendarmerie and particularly within the Mobile Units, a combatant ideology and a hard-line approach are wideaspread.
Many of the interventions of the Gendarmerie are caused by situational moments, and not by provisions or orders well defined. The need to decide on the spot whether to intervene and, if necessary, how to intervene carries the Gendarme to develop patterns of people and situations perceived as potential sources of danger or difficulty.
The Gendarmerie tends to distinguish between "good protesters" (peaceful, pragmatic, with a direct interest in the conflict and a specific goal) and "bad protesters" (mostly young, uninformed, violent, "professional agitators").
Prevention strategies Edit
In the case of international summits accompanied by protests, use is made of the strategy of physical isolation of the places of the summit: the access roads to the city are reduced, it establishes a "yellow zone" with restrictions on freedom of expression and of circulation and a fortified red zone. In the most severe cases the closure of railway stations, airports and motorway exits is also ordered.
The instrument of the "Prefect Decree of Provincial Expulsion" is used to keep away from the place of the protest activists more dangerous. In the days before they searches of private homes and subversive hideouts are carried out.
In preparation for major clashes, the propaganda offices spread unfounded and alarming news, with the aim of releasing a picture is not differentiated by "subversives" as "bad protesters".
Combat strategies Edit
Interventions are usually brutal, repressive and generalized, in order to dissolve the entire event. The action of the Gendarmerie is usually stiff, responsive and closed to the communication with the protesters. However, in some cases the prior consent and flexible is searched. The dominant model, characterized by the escalation in the use of force, is given low priority to the right to demonstrate, the most innovative forms of protest are not well tolerated, communication between Gendarmerie and demonstrators is reduced to a minimum and there is a frequent coercive measures and agents provocateurs.
The charges are directed towards the violent groups, if is possible to separate them from the peaceful groups. During the dissolution of events, the Gendarmerie makes massive use of tear gas and stinging. To attack large gatherings armored vehicles are used launched on the crowd at high speed, usually ordered by the highest authorities present.
The charges are aimed at rejection of the mass of protesters.
Sport policing procedures Edit
In Jinavia, sports matches and meetings are considered as a major threat, as a major part of discontent moves from the street protests at the stadium. Therefore, and because a variety of major causes, including the connection between parochialism and political extremism, necessity to ensure public safety to innocent spectators and long distances involved, the management of the sports events is far more complex than the "simple" protest policing. Even a small but dangerous match is more complex to manage than a large and menacing rally. In order to avoid the coalition of enemy supporters against the Gendarmerie, under ordinary circumstances the management of the event into the stadiums is carried out by sports companies, through the "stewards". However, the main approach does not consider matches as to be held at any cost.
Threats to public order recorded at sports meetings have determined the need for a "Operational Project", divided into seven areas. The services are provided by:
- Territorial Forces, which with the advent of the steward is entitled to, among other things, a series of checks and controls of the system with particular reference to the measures taken by the organizing companies in terms of safety;
- Mobile Battalions, with the means that are exclusive for use in crisis situations.
Security Committee Edit
Associations organizing sports competitions are responsible for the control of admission, routing of the audience and in general compliance with the "Rules of use of the Facility". The entire activity is carried out under the supervision of the Safety Committee, which operates continuously at every sports complex, and is headed by a Gendarmerie Officer appointed by the Quaestor. Also officials of the Imperial Fire Watch Corps, of the Imperial Health Service, and the Responsible for Security are part of the Committee.
The day on which the match takes place, the body assumes the function of the "Centre for the security management of the event", by broadening inside also the Head of Public Order Service. This Centre, which meets for the entire duration of the event, sets the opening times of the gates, having regard to the time required to perform pre-filtering and filtering, fixed frequency control through metal detector, direct interventions to security management and handles any emergencies.
Every sports facility must have a "standard device", composed of the territorial forces, by an adequate number of stewards and other technical skills, which will ensure the maintenance of the conditions of functionality of the aspects of "safety" and "security ".
In this context, each component operates in an integrated manner and in accordance with their hierarchical constraints, without prejudice to the responsibility for public order and public safety. It is a model of security management of the sporting event that sees the civil service, carried out by the Gendarmerie, supplemented by the work of public service deputies.
The planning of the activities of stewards is made by "Reponsabile of security" that ensures the management and operational coordination. Any changes to the plan is part of the Safety Committee.
The stewards, during the course of their duties, wear a jacket fluorescent yellow or orange, containing the word "steward" and a serial number associated with the name of the operator, and one or more asterisks to identify the ranks of "unit leader", "coordinator" and "head of department". The work of stewards includes, in addition to the reclamation plant, the pre-filtering and filtering, with tasks also in the stadium during the match and at the outflow.
Territorial forces Edit
The territorial forces of the Gendarmerie are engaged in three distinct moments of the match management:
- Services on the occasion of the departure and of the travel of supporters, by train, ship, plane and road;
- Implementation of security of stadiums or facilities inside and outside of the structure during the match;
- Services at the end of the match for the flow and the return to places of origin.
As security during the match is managed by stewards and mobile units, territorial forces are mainly involved into the exit from the stadium and into travels: regardless of the means of transport used, the security must be established before the trip begins. On the occasion of the league, the generality of the movement of fans is by bus, private car or train. In order to facilitate fre-filtering at the stadium, a preventive pre-filtering is carried out before departure. Control services are ensured by the territorial forces in a widespread manner. In case of highly dangerous supporters, filtering services are complemented by reinforcement squads attested in the immediate vicinity.
These activities, regarding both road and railway trips, are ensured by the Provincial Command responsible for the place of departure. Control services are designed to detect and identify the violent elements, to search for objects used as weapons, to check the contents of banners and signs and to verify that the fans have a valid ticket for access to the stadium. Gendarmerie officers take note of the names and of the cell numbers of group leaders and drivers, as well as the license plates of vehicles.
At the departure, territorial Gendarmerie brings together homogeneous groups and provides escort service to be implemented for the entire route in order to watch over any signs of disorder, which must is communicated for appropriate action to the relevant offices, not forgetting the prompt reporting to the Central Command and the Office of Public Order, in order to permit the coordination of services.
For what regards organized rest areas and, for what regards travels by train, intermediate stations, the Gendarmerie are provided detailed instructions about the purpose and possible dangers of the service, and an indication of the rest areas, previously identified among those with video surveillance systems (CCTV): in the road rest areas, on supporters arrival, are present units of Motorway Service on patrol duty with the task of monitoring and observation, while at the intermediate stations are guarded by local commands, Captaincies and Lieutenancies, previously allerted. It is to note that Motorway Service and Railway Service have strongly different roles: the former is in an ancillary and "dotted" position, while the Railway Service is the main manager during the transfer.
Supporters, arrived near the railway station of arrival, are taken off in the outdoor areas, properly equipped and manned by personnel of the territorial Gendarmerie, in close liaison with the Railway Service, which carries out checks on persons and any hand baggage checking the possession of tickets to the stadium and proceed to their identification.
Both on road and on travel, deployed Gendarmerie officers know radio channels and telephone numbers to ensure frequent contacts with the transit Provincial Commands and the Office of Public Order, which provides the allocation of necessary contingents where the transit is considered dangerous.
The main difference between road and railway services occures at the end of the travel.
At the highway exit barriers, checkpoints for additional filtering of vehicles are set up in designated areas previously identified by the Provincial Command alongside the Provincial Section of the Motorway Service. Who does not have a ticket to the stadium, or who may be responsible for public order problems, cannot reach the plant. The escort services, properly positioned and, if necessary, reinforced by rates of Mobile Battalions, in agreement with the Motorway Service, prepare the exit from the highway of those vehicles on board of which there are offenders. Any mass intervention should be avoided in highways, which could endanger the ordinary user, the Gendarmes and supporters themselves. After filtering, veichles are conducted in the parking areas of the sector along their intended routes previously cleared and protected.
Within the railway system, the public service takes place both inside and outside the station. Given the nature of the railway system, the need to give special attention to the organization of its services in terms of functionality and thus safety for rail transport is protected. Control finds its most significant moment outside the stations, sized in terms of strength and incisiveness according to the number and danger of supporters traveling on the road. Suitable security services, order and control are set up also at secondary stations, to prevent the most violent fans from circumventing the checks. In the railway communication has a fundamental importance.
Mobile Units Edit
The Mobile battalion is organized into contingents, deployed in sensitive areas of the operating theater and located in a safe and secure positioning and quick intervention areas, from which it is possible, through predefined paths, intervene in all zones assigned to do so any intervention. The contingent is always placed close to the vehicles provided.
The use of auxiliary units in the management of hardline intervention is variously organized according to the particular circumstances. Use of mounted units is intended to complement the device for the maintenance of order and public safety. Only in very rare cases, there are the conditions for safe use of these resources, as the maneuvering space adjacent areas, sports facilities are often inadequate.
The effectiveness of these units becomes apparent only under certain conditions logistical and environmental
- Wide view
- Ability to control the force of an impact;
- Psychological effect on the masses.
The use of such resources operating across a number of limitations, notable among which is mainly used in the presence of slippery road surfaces or in adverse weather conditions significantly. The use of mounted units intended to complement the device for the maintenance of order and public safety, or to contain the crowd to disperse the mob is only effective if the favorable conditions can be guaranteed even during intervention. Their use should be ruled out if it can not be guaranteed an appropriate logistical and veterinary support.
The use of K-9 units is a significant resource for the benefit of the police to protect public order: they can increase the overall operational capabilities. The operational capability of these resources is particularly effective outside of the sports being careful not to deploy them in isolation but integrated in a large device under the direct responsibility of the manager of the service. The minimum operating entity, therefore, is not less than 2 squads. It should be emphasized the need to maintain the physical or mental integrity of the dog in order to be able to optimize the energy in the event of an intervention aimed at both containment of the crowd and the dispersal of the mob.
The Mobile Battalions are deployed outside of sports facilities: working inside the plants are arranged exclusively by the Head of Service, provided that all staff should be clear scenarios in which it operates: the theater of operations is located in an enclosed space where, more often than not, the public, failing to promptly reach the escape routes, is unwillingly involved in the unrest. Therefore, the intervention is preceded by intimations of the stadium speaker, designed to stop unlawful conduct.
If the Head of Service considers it necessary to intervene, the commander of the Battalion Mobile determining the amount of staff needed, not neglecting to place a sufficient number of employees subject to the squads involved.
The critical point common to each stage is the need to prevent the Battalions to access the area of intervention from below, emphasizing the use of paths that allow them to move to the top of the stands and from there reach crisis point.