Novorossiysk (Russian: Новоросси́йск) is a city in Krasnodar Kray, the main port on the Black Sea. It is one of the few cities honoured with the Soviet title of Hero City. Population: 281,400 (2005 est.); 246,900 (2004 est.); 232,079.
In antiquity, the shores of the Tsemess Bay were the site of Bata, an ancient Greek colony that specialized in the grain trade. It is mentioned in the works of Strabo and Ptolemy, among others. The Genoese merchants from the Ghisolfi family maintained a trade outpost there in the Middle Ages. Archaeological investigation of the area is in its infancy, but some interesting items have already been uncovered.
Since 1722, the bay was commanded by the Ottoman fortress of Sujuk-Qale or Soğucak. After the coastline was ceded to Russia in 1829 as a result of a Russo-Turkish War, the admirals Mikhail Lazarev and Nikolay Raevsky founded an eastern base for the Black Sea Fleet on the shore in 1838. Named after the province of Novorossiya, the port formed a vital link in the chain of forts known as the Black Sea Coastal Line, which stretched south to Sochi.
During the rest of the 19th century, Novorossiysk developed rapidly and became the capital of the Black Sea Governorate, the smallest in the Russian Empire, in 1896. From 26 August, 1918 until 27 March, 1920 Novorossiysk was the principal centre of Denikin's White Army and the short-lived Novorossiya Republic.
In 1942, the town was occupied by the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer), but a small unit of Soviet sailors defended one part of the town for 225 days, until it was liberated by the Red Army on 16 September, 1943. The defence of the port by the Soviet sailors allowed to retain possession of the city's bay, which prevented the Germans from using the port for supply shipments. Novorossiysk was awarded the title Hero City in 1973.
The commercial port of Novorossiysk, with a market value of $1,110,000,000, serves Russian sea trade heading to Asia, the Middle East, Africa, the Mediterranean, and South America. It is the busiest oil port in the Black Sea and the terminus of the pipeline from the Tengiz Field, developed by the Caspian Pipeline Consortium.
Novorossiysk is also an industrial city, dependent on steel, food processing, and the production of metal goods and other manufactures. Extensive limestone quarries supply important cement factories in and around the city. The town is home to the Maritime State Academy and Novorossiysk Politechnic Institute.
Novorossiysk is connected by rail and highways to the main industrial and population centres of Russia, Transcaucasia, and Middle Asia. The public transportation within the city boundaries consists of city buses, trolleybuses, and marshrutkas.
Novorossiysk is not a resort town, but Anapa to the north and Gelendzhik to the south are. There are several urban settlements under the jurisdiction of Novorossiysk. The most famous is Abrau-Dyurso, which consists of a townlet on the shore of Lake Abrau and a village on the coast of the Black Sea, connected by a winding mountain road.
Myskhako, a townlet of 5,700 inhabitants, is situated on the eastern slope of Mt. Koldun (447 meters). It is associated with a WWII marine operation involving Leonid Brezhnev. The modern settlement is noted for its luxurious villas and wine-making facilities.
The area of Novorossiysk is one of Russia's main wine-growing regions. The wineries of Abrau-Dyurso, established by Tsar Alexander III in 1870, produce table and sparkling wines for domestic consumption.
Novorossiysk has seven sister cities:
- Gainesville, Florida (USA)
- Plymouth (UK)
- Livorno (Italy)
- Valparaiso (Chile)
- Gijón (Spain)
- Varna (Bulgaria)
- Pula (Croatia)
- Soviet topographic map 1:100,000
- Municipal site (Russian)
- Novorossiysk commercial sea port (English)
- Informational portal of city (Russian)
- Our Novorossiysk (Russian)
- Photos of Novorossiysk (Russian)
- Photos of Durso, around Novorossiysk (English)
- Weather forecast for Novorossiysk (English)
- "Myskhako" winery (English)
|Cities and towns in the Republic of Adygea|
| Capital: Maykop|