|Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana|
|The GNR emblem|
|Active||1923 - Present (as MVSN)|
1948 - Present (as GNR)
|Country||Italian Social Republic|
|Part of||Military of Italian Social Republic|
|Headquarters||Palazzo della Milizia, Roma, Italy|
The National Republican Guard (Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana, GNR), often nicknamed Revolutionary Guard, is a branch of Italy's security forces, founded after the Proclamation of Republic, being the standing, operational and permanently armed branch of the Voluntary Militia for National Security (Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, MVSN). Whereas the regular military defends Italy's borders and maintains internal order, and whereas the MVSN acts as support branch to the militarization of Italian people and as a support force to the Public Security, the National Republican Guard is intended to protect the country's Fascist system. It is also intended to prevent and to crush internal dissent as well as military uprisings.
The GNR has roughly 130,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the National Republican Guard has taken an ever more assertive role in virtually every aspect of Italian society. The Commandant General of the National Republican Guard is Junio Marco Borghese, famed naval commander Junio Valerio Borghese's firstborn.
The force's main role is in national security: it is responsible for critical internal security; GNR operations are geared towards asymmetric warfare and less traditional duties such as resistance operations. The GNR is intended to complement the more traditional role of the regular Italian military, with the two forces operating separately and focusing on different operational roles.
The GNR is a combined arms force with its own ground forces, air service (for territorial control and army aviation) and special forces. Naval service is not provided directly by the MVSN assets, and intelligence is carried out by both the general MVSN and OVRA. For POW matters, the GNR is officially recognized as a component of the Italian military. However, the GNR is separate from, and parallel to, the other arms of the Italy's military: furthermore, the GNR is subordinate to the MVSN General Command, not the Defence Ministry, although war plans do include the GNR and it is under the Defence General Staff operational control in wartime. Although the Guard and regular Army were maintained as separate institutions, they had demonstrated the ability to fight effectively in the same offensive or defensive operation. It is to note that the National Republican Guard, as a branch of the MVSN, is the National Fascist Party's main and most lethal armed corps: it is an armed force belonging to the only party which is permitted, although it is charged of State security duties.
The GNR was formed following the Proclamation of the Republic of 1948 in an effort to provide the new State of a new and reliable praetorian force and in order to function as a counter to the influence and power of the regular military, initially seen as a potential source of opposition and loyalty to the King. The GNR helped legitimize the Republic and gave the Regime an armed basis of support more consistent than the ordinary rank-and-file MVSN. Moreover, the establishment of the GNR served notice to both the population and the regular armed forces that the republican regime was quickly developing its own enforcement body. Although the GNR operates independently of the regular armed forces, it is often considered to be a military force in its own right due to its important role in Italian defence. The GNR consists of ground, naval, and aviation troops, which parallel the structure of the regular military. All National Republican Guard troops are motivated volunteers rather than a mixture of conscripts and career personnel. Personnel recruited into the GNR are also given some bonuses.
Among the newest GNR roles, entrusted to it following the growth of the Anglo-American hostility, there is that to ensure the deterrence capability against the enemies of Italy and the Fascist Revolution, without an exclusively military role, and to provide an armed force to the indigenous peoples of the Italian Empire, who are not eligible for regular military service (which is reserved to Italian citizens). The countering of violent internal dissent, although entrusted to the Public Security and to the general MVSN, is assigned to the GNR, although it is absolutely not a decentralized force, while the persistent separation between military and GNR nowadays is functional to obstacle the infiltration of Western sedition. Thus, the mission assigned to the GNR is purely, and even uniquely, political in its essence. The GNR is defined as the “guardian of the Revolution and of its achievements” — a political as well as military mission.
Although top leaders of the GNR have been always granted a seat within the Grand Council of Fascism or in party top bodies, they have never acted as a "praetorian" force in the pejorative meaning of the term. However, from an internal-oriented point of view, the GNR has rarely been a monolithic body in terms of its ideological and political outlook. As in any elite military organization, the leadership of the GNR has been adept at emphasizing uniformity measures. Within the post-coup leadership, these unifying tenets are corporatism, authoritarianism, nationalism — reinforced by revolutionary content; factional elite divisions emerge mainly about actual policies, often relatively untied to security issues. The official rhetoric of the Corps, and the propaganda that comes, is geared to heavily enhance the warrior bravado and soldiery irony, making fun of the enemy and of Death. The rhetoric also focuses on being warriors and not soldiers or even workers.
The National Republican Guard was founded on October, 28th 1948, on the second anniversary of the proclamation of the Republic. Between late days of October 1946 and the foundation of the GNR, the Carabinieri underwent a series of major changes and reforms, in order to make them suitable for the merger with the most elite MVSN units. On November, 4th 1946, Carabinieri were separated from the new National Republican Army, and they were established as the Arm of the Republican Carabinieri (Arma dei Carabinieri Repubblicani), maintaining their widespread territorial structure. Major debates were held about the Carabinieri's ultimate destiny. Some Party and military leaders supported the general merger of all police and security apparatus in one Gendarmerie force; many others, however, supported the decision to split responsibilities.
Benito Mussolini was in deep distrust of most of military leaders, first of all Marshal Pietro Badoglio. In order to have a reliable power instrument, in 1947 he began the reform path: on January, 30rd Mussolini appointed retired Field Army General Rodolfo Graziani as first Commandant General of the Republican Carabinieri; on March, 4th the new Regulation was enacted, as well as the new Republican oath of allegiance, and by the end of April the uniform changed, adopting the blackshirt. In the fall of 1947 began a significant personnel migration towards the Army, due to distrust of future: this migration was accepted and softly encouraged by the authorities, which did not want reluctant members within the new force.
However, the territorial structure was maintained, although a bit reduced: some city commands were transferred to the renewed Republican Police Corps, while the rural stations were still kept open. By the end of 1947, the first MVSN military units were established; these units were intended both for MVSN service and for the new Corps. In January 1948 the Provisional Consultative Committee for the Establishment of the National Republican Guard was established, presided over by Commandant General Rodolfo Graziani; both Carabinieri and MVSN officers were appointed as Committee members. On March, 23rd 1948, during a speech before a Carabinieri-MVSN joint exercise, Benito Mussolini told about the establishment of a new force, capable to keep traditions and to be a truly Fascist Republican apparatus. By May, 8th 1948, the transfer of the Carabinieri territorial structure and personnel to the Public Security apparatus was completed: officers could choose between the re-enlistment in the Army with the rank held, the enrolment as Public Security civilian officials, the direct transfer to the Republican Police Corps (within the increased operational needs) or the permanence within the National Republican Guard. A significant, but minor part (7%) chose to retire, while the bulk of officers (73%) chose to remain in service within the Armed Forces (especially the Republican Police Corps and the Army, but also in the Navy and in the Air Force; only a relatively minor part (14%) remained in the National Republican Guard.
On October, 28th, 1948, after a massive parade, Duce Benito Mussolini officially established the National Republican Guard, with an intermediate status between the MVSN (which was subordinated to) and the Armed Forces (which cooperated with).
The first serious test bench was the African War (1950-1953) against the United Kingdom and its British Empire. The newborn force was still struggling to amalgamate its ranks ad file (mostly coming from Carabinieri) with its officers, coming for the major part from the MVSN (86%) and to rebuild an effective operational capability. Luckily, the most part of former Carabinieri officers who chose to remain in the National Republican Guard were assigned to military police duties, both due to lobbying action of the PNF and due to the relative distance between the most politicized elements of GNR duties. The Military Police Sections detached to military units and formations were nearly identical to the Carabinieri military police sections before the GNR establishment and this greatly helped the order enforcement within Army units and formations deployed in the African fronts. Alongside the Folgore Division, the MVSN 1st Paratroopers Company fought heroically at El Alamein.
From an organizational point of view, the National Republican Guard depends on the General Command of the MVSN; however, it functionally depends on the Ministry of Defence of military-related tasks, while it depends on the MVSN branches like OVRA and Central Security Office for duties related to the jurisdiction of such bodies. A definition of the missions of the GNR is given by Statutory Law: «The GNR contributes, on the whole territory, the guarantee of stability of Fascist institutions and the maintenance of peace and public order». Therefore, since 1948, the GNR has performed a wide range of roles:
- Military Police duties;
- Protection of the Country against terrorism and attacks on fundamental interests of the nation;
- Support to maintenance of public order;
- Provision of police services to the Italian military;
- Special coast guard service, border and port security duties in co-operation with the Republican Police Corps, GRdF and MVSN;
- Participation in ceremonies involving foreign heads of state or heads of government;
- Participation in missions abroad.
The GNR performs also counter-insurgency operations, and guarding central government buildings and officials. The GNR is also tasked with acting as a stay-behind force in case of enemy invasion.
Physical fitness Edit
Fascism as both ideology and way of life places an high institutional value on physical fitness, because every Fascist should be prepared to join the ranks to defend the Fatherland or the Revolution. Being a Fascist elite armed corps, the GNR places a high institutional value on physical readiness, in order to prepare the Legionnaire's body for the line rigours. The minimum starting point, for a well-educated Legionnaire, is considered to be the mandatory participation in three hours weekly of physical exercise; every evaluation score implies further fitness, increasing promotability, as well as rewards for winning athletic competitions. Chronic lack of physical fitness can be grounds for administrative punishment, and even discharge in extreme situations. Alongside the fitness requirements, the GNR (like all parts of the MVSN and like the military) has developed an its own unarmed combat style. The GNR Fight Style (It: Stile di Combattimento GNR) is a combat system developed by the GNR to combine existing and new hand-to-hand and close quarters combat techniques with morale and comradeship functions. It also stresses mental and character development, including the conscious use of force, leadership, and comradeship.
The National Republican Guard requires that all Legionnaires of the GNR perform a physical fitness test (It: Esame di Buona Costituzione Fisica, EBCF) and a combat fitness test (It: Prova di Idoneità al Servizio Attivo, PISA) once per year. Each test must have an interval of 6 months. The EBCF ensures that Legionnaires are keeping physically fit and in a state of physical readiness, as it is a duty for every Fascist. It consists of pull-ups, crunches and a 3-mile run for males. The PISA is designed to measure abilities demanded of Legionnaires in a war zone. While the EBCF was adapted from the USMC Physical Fitness Test, the PISA was introduced in 2009 after a joint elaboration with Western elite corps. Both tests are mandatory to pass, and failing to pass them is a cause for forced retirement.
Physical fitness test Edit
The physical fitness test (It: Esame di Buona Costituzione Fisica, EBCF) is divided into three tests: pull-ups, crunches and run.
The standard Italian pull-up begins at the "dead-hang" with arms locked out and the body hanging motionless. A successful pull-up is performed without excess motion, the body rising until the chin is above the bar, and body lowered back to the "dead-hang" position. Changes in grip during the chinning are allowed as long as the feet don't touch the ground and only the hands come in contact with the pull-up bar. There is no time limit. Both an overhand and underhand hold on the bar can be used. Each complete pull-up is worth 5 points up to a maximum of 100 points (20 pull-ups). Additional pull-ups beyond 20 are not counted and do not add to the score.
Crunches are executed with the feet flat on the ground together or 30 centimetres apart (whichever is more comfortable), knees bent at a 90 degree angle, and arms on the ribcage or chest. One crunch is completed when the upper body is lifted until both arms touch the thighs and then lowered until the shoulder blades touch the ground. The arms must be in constant contact with the chest or rib cage; the buttocks must be in constant contact with the ground. The exercise is performed with the heels of the feet kept in constant contact with the ground. The Legionnaire is given two minutes to complete as many crunches as possible. Each completed crunch is worth 1 point up to a maximum of 100 points. Any crunches completed after the two-minute time limit are not counted and do not add to the score.
For the running test, the Legionnaire runs 5 kilometres on reasonably flat ground. A perfect score of 100 points is achieved by completing the run in less than 20 minutes. One point is deducted from the score for each additional ten seconds that it takes to complete the run. Completing the run in less than 20 minutes does not add to the score.
The minimum a 18 to 26 year old Legionnaire must complete are 3 pull-ups, 50 crunches, and a 28 minute 3-mile run; for older Legionnaires, minimum requirements are inferior. In order to pass the test, each Legionnaire must achieve a passing score and complete at least the minimum in each category in order to pass the test.
Combat fitness test Edit
The combat fitness test (It: Prova di Idoneità al Servizio Attivo, PISA) has three tests: the battle uniform run, the can-lifting and the fire-drill. The scoring is articulated.
The 800-metres "Combat Movement" is a run in boots and utility pants; a perfect score of 100 is earned by completing this task in under 2 minutes and 45 seconds. One point is deducted for each additional 2 seconds up to a final time of 4 minutes and 13 seconds.
The can-lifting test consists of two minutes of lifting a 13-kilograms ammunition can over the head, earning 2 points for each number done in the time limit; a perfect score of 100 is achieved with 91 can lifts. 99 points are achieved for 89 or 90 lifts, and then 1 point is deduced for each lift missing until 84 lifts; 94 points are achieved for 82 and 83 lifts and so on. The minimum is 33 lifts.
The “Fire Drill" is a composite test; in part obstacle course, in part conditioning, and in part combat test. It consists of a 10-metres sprint, a 15-metres crawl and hauling a simulated casualty using two different carries over 70 metres going zig-zag through cones, another 70-metres sprint while carrying two 13-kilograms ammunition cans over 70 metres through the same cones, throwing a dummy hand grenade into a marked circle 20 yards away (adding 5 seconds to total time if missed) and, finally, 3 push-ups and a sprint with the ammo cans to the finish line. A perfect score of 100 is earned by completing this task in under 3 minutes. One point is deducted for each additional 2 seconds up to the longest time of 6 minutes.
General Command Edit
A General Command exists at the top of the GNR. It is the control, coordination and control body of all activities of the Guard. The General Command consists of the Commandant-General, the Deputy Commandant-General and the Chief of Staff. The General Command employs 1,585 Guardsmen (1,105% of the total force).
The Commandant-General of the National Republican Guard (It: Comandante Generale della Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana, CGGNR) is the highest-ranking officer in the National Republican Guard and is a member of the Central Commission of the MVSN. The Commandant General reports directly to the Commandant General of the M.V.S.N. and is responsible for ensuring the organization, policy, plans, and programs for the GNR as well as advising the Duce, the Secretary of the PNF, the Chief of Government, and the Ministers of Defence and of Interior on matters involving the National Republican Guard. The Commandant is appointed by the Duce usually for a four-year term of office. By statute, the Commandant is appointed as a four-star general while serving in office.br> The primary responsibility of the Commandant-General of the National Republican Guard, which is part of MVSN but under the direct supervision of the Duce, is to exercise direct control and command activity, with the following special features:
- Directing, coordinating and inspecting the facilities and central and peripheral organs of the Guard.
- Managing the acquisition, use and maintenance of human resources, materials and techniques necessary to achieve the goals of the Guard.
- Interacting directly with the administrative authorities and public bodies or private law and order and public security.
To carry out their functions is assisted by two deputy commanders:
- Deputy Commandant-General - Chief of GNR Staff: is considered the first of the Deputies and is responsible to replace the head if he is prevented as well as being a close associate and chief of staff.
- Deputy Commandant-General - Security Director: directs all investigations and "light" intelligence activity.
General Staff Edit
The General Staff is commanded by the Chief of Staff - Deputy Commandant-General, assisted by the Deputy Chief of Staff. The Chief of Staff directs and coordinates the work of various departments, submits to the Commandant-General the various issues, giving relevant particulars of the proceedings and decide the ones for which has been delegated by the Commandant-General and the same exercise in respect of staff of the Central Command of the duties of commander of the body. The General Staff of the National Republican Guard is divided into six departments:
- Military Chaplain
- The "Force Organization" Unit with control functions and address in the order, trained, government personnel, disciplinary matters.
- The "Use of Force" Unit, with control functions and address in the operating room and head of Operations.
- III Unit "Telematics" with control functions and address in the computer industry and telecommunications.
- IV Department "Logistics" with a managerial sector support forces. The general planning of the logistical activities of the General Command is made by Logistics Department where the GNR Logistics Command performs the activities.
- V Unit "Budget Planning and Control" with administrative and financial functions.
- Autonomous Unit, with logistics, administrative and security tasks within the same command.
Legionary Air Force Edit
The organization of the Legionary Air Force (It: Aviazione Legionaria, A.L.) comprises all persons, aircraft, equipment, technical support and logistic infrastructures, whose primary function is to complement and enhance preventive action and control of land developed by the departments operating on the ground. The Air Service is divided into:
- An Air Service Command with administrative, instructional, supervisory, logistic and technical advice tasks; it depends directly on the Commandant-General.
- A GNR Aircraft Group, which groupes its subordinate units in the conceptual and organizational aspects of instructional, operational, technical and logistics fields, and serves as executive body. Operational activities of the GNR Aircraft Group consist of aerial reconnaissance missions, air support and medical aid.
- 16 Aircraft Squadrons dependants on G.A.G., homogeneously decentralized on national territory in order to ensure a timely intervention. They consists of utility and transport helicopters.
- 1 Combat Aircraft Regiment (It: Reggimento Aerei da Combattimento), which manages all four air cavalry Squadron Groups.
Logistics Command Edit
The Logistics Command, together with its subordinate units, provides logistics support to the GNR units; this Command executes activities of supply, storage, delivery, maintenance and renovation of the materials authorized. Under that Command are the following central Directorates:
- Directorate for the Manufacture of Clothes which undertakes to prepare the uniforms and clothes required;
- Printing Office Directorate which prints the books, publications, and guidelines;
- Ordnance Main Repair and Factory Directorate which provides maintenance and repair services for vehicles, weapons, and special materials;
- Communications Central Depot and Factory Directorate, which is responsible for the storage, overhaul, and renovation of the communication equipments and systems as well as the technical training activities for those systems. The Engineering Central Depot Directorate is responsible for the storage and distribution of engineering materials, the overhaul services of generators, production of fences, supply of maps and geographical documents.
Training Command Edit
The Training Command is tasked with the training of all cadets and students of the GNR; training and educational facilities are intended to complement those of the proper MVSN. It operates a "Officer Students School" (Scuola Allievi Ufficiali, a military post-graduation academy to attend after the passing of the MVSN counterpart), a "Subofficers School" (Scuola Allievi Sottufficiali) and a "Guard Sudents School" (Scuola Allievi Guardie). It employs 5,384 personnel.
The D-Force (Forza "D") is a special unit of National Republican Guard. It is described as tasked with exporting Fascist Revolution, as well as being responsible for extraterritorial operations. The D-Force reports directly to Duce Italo Debalti. Its current commander is Major General Mauro Sugelmini, who controls 15,000 Guardsmen (14,064 operational and 836 support). Unlike military special forces (the Arditi, roughly translated as "bold ones"), which follow the regular chain of command, the D-Force is constantly and directly available to OVRA and Duce of the Republic. The most important ongoing deployment is Syria, where the D-Force covertly acts in order to help to secure the Bashar Hafez al-Assad's Bath regime and to counter and balance Iranian and Russian influences.
The D-Force is organized into six different directorates based on geographic location:
- USA and America
- Western Europe
- Slavic and Russian Space
- Mediterranean Sea and Near East
- Middle East (Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan)
- Far East
The main mission of the D-Force is to organize, train, equip, and finance foreign Fascist revolutionary movements and to train and lead friendly unconventional warfare forces, or a clandestine guerrilla force in a countr occupied by a nation hostile to Italy or, finally, to help defend against hostile guerrillas in a spectrum of counter-guerilla activities from indirect support to combat command. The D-Force maintains and builds contacts with underground Fascist militant organizations throughout the world.
While D-Force has a direct action capability, other units are more focused on overt direct action raids conducted in uniform. D-Force personnel have the training to carry out covert actions, and other missions.
D-Force is divided into six Regiments, each of them having a specific regional focus. The D-Force members assigned to these groups receive intensive language and cultural training for countries within their regional area of responsibility. A D-Force Regiment consists of four battalions.
- Battalion Command Platoon: The Battalion Command Platoon is the headquarters element of a D-Force Battalion. As such, it is a command and control unit with operations, training, signals and logistic support responsibilities to its three subordinate line companies. A Lieutenant Colonel commands both the whole battalion and the Command Platoon. There are an additional 20–30 personnel who fill key positions in operations, logistics, intelligence, communications and medical. A Battalion consists of five companies: "1", "2", "3", "4" and Headquarters/Support. The Battalion Command Detachment is responsible for a theatre or a major subcomponent, which can provide command and control of up to 24 operational squads, four companies or a mixture of the two. Subordinate to it are the Company Command Detachment, which can provide command and control for six operational squads. Further subordinate, the operational squads typically raise company- to battalion-sized units when on unconventional warfare missions. They can form 6-man "Special Patrols" (Pattuglie Speciali) detachments that are often used for special reconnaissance.
- Company Command: The Company Command is the headquarters element of a D-Force company, and it is usually composed of 15–17 soldiers. While the Operational Squads typically conduct direct operations, the purpose of the Company Command is to support its Operational Squads both in garrison and in the field. When deployed, in line with their support role, Company Commands are usually found in more secure rear areas. However, under some circumstances a Company Command will deploy into a hostile area, usually to coordinate the activities of multiple Operational Squads. The Company Command is led by a Major, who is also the company commander. The company commander is assisted by his company deputy commander, usually a Captain. The deputy commander is himself assisted by a subofficer, who assists in the direction of the organization, training, intelligence, counter-intelligence, and operations for the company and its detachments.
- Operational Squad: A D-Force company normally consists of six Operational Squads. Each Operational Squad specializes in an infiltration skill or a particular mission-set. An Operational Squad is identified by its Regiment, Battalion, Company, and the Squad itself. An Operational Squad consists of 12 men, each of whom has a specific function on the team; however all members of an Operational Squad conduct cross-training. The Operational Squad is led by a Captain, and a Lieutenant or a First Adjutant.
Counter-terrorism Regiment Edit
The National Republican Guard deploys a line Regiment in order to counter terrorist and other high-profile emergencies. The Regiment consists of a Battalion deployed in Italy, a Company deployed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, a Company deployed in Tripoli, Libya and a Special Company for most sensitive interventions. The Regiment as a whole possesses enhanced capabilities in the maritime domain, including advanced "breaching" capabilities and ship-boarding capabilities. The Italian Battalion maintains 2 complete support units (training company and multi-purpose company) and a medium/high profile interventions Company; African delegations have an operational Platoon and a multi-purpose platoon each.
Special Anti-terrorism Company Edit
The Special Anti-terrorism Company (Compagnia Speciale Antiterrorismo, CSAT) is the counter-terrorism and hostage rescue unit of the GNR. The CSAT is trained to rescue Italians and allies who are held by hostile forces, usually terrorists and/or insurgents. The CSAT's purpose is to serve as an Empire-wide counter-terrorism unit, offering a tactical resolution option in hostage and high-risk law enforcement situations. While never advertised as such, CSAT operators are fully trained commandos on par with Army special operations units. The CSAT has the ability to deploy within four hours, with part or all of its personnel and resources, to any location within the Italian Empire. The unit is able to operate in a variety of environments (chemical, extreme cold, night and low-light, or rural environments). The CSAT's capabilities include advanced ground tactics, advanced maritime operations, and advanced tactical aviation operations.
Military Police Command Edit
Military police functions and duties are among the most important legacies of the Carabinieri taken by the National Republican Guard. The Military Police Command (It: Comando della Polizia Militare) has a direct function to deal with and prosecute cases of espionage that threaten state military security, the protection of the plans and military installations, as well as any other project and experiment to keep secret. Surveillance and interventions to be carried out to enforce discipline, security and safety of military personnel, or to ensure the rear security, or regrouping disbanded soldiers or units which are engaged in combat are also military police tasks. The Military Police Command has to prevent and combat all forms of activities which may prejudice the security and defence of the State from a military point of view.They are therefore considered to be mainly:
- Military intelligence;
- The infringement of the provisions laid down to better protect military secrets or the military defence of the State;
- Subversive and defeatist propaganda between the Italian Armed Forces;
- Attacks on facilities of military interest;
- Thefts of weapons, ammunition and military equipment.
Some of these activities take only an indirect interest in the military, but have a predominantly political foundation and therefore the action of prevention and repression is primarily devolved to other organs (OVRA, Military intelligence). It is not always possible to establish a clear line of demarcation between the strictly military and the political field. The relevant service is divided into two main branches: "strict military police" and "military counter-intelligence". The first one reflects the implementation of all preventive measures, whether general or particular, to combat subversive and defeatist propaganda, to ensure the works safety and military equipment. The military counter-intelligence service tends to identify the agents of spying and monitoring its tasks in order to stamp out the action at the appropriate time. Therefore, the body in charge of counter-intelligence is the Military Intelligence Service. The Military Police Command in this field is the executive agency of the military police service in co-operation with the SIM, while the Public Security and even the O.V.R.A. are considered subsidiary bodies. However, the help of the OVRA is valuable in this field if it is considered that the activities have in their very nature a foundation of a political nature.
On the metropolitan territory, the military police monitors compliance with applicable laws, regulations and the provisions of the military authorities and takes Armed Forces security actions, participating in exercises. The Military Police Command also ensures contacts with the Provincial Legions of the Militia, in order to control military traffic.
Abroad and in the Autonomous Republics, as well as ensuring the application of usual activities, military police performs services for maintaining public order in the area of operations, escort to the national authorities for the supervision of persons authorized to follow the Armed Forces, of competition in the forced evacuations and escorting prisoners of war. The military police organizations liaising with the local police organizations and with civil authorities and directs the protection of the people from looting. Finally, it assists the military authorities in the requisition.
Military criminal police Edit
The criminal police must, on its own initiative, take news of offences, prevent them from being carried further consequences, search for the authors, take the steps necessary to ensure the sources of evidence and collect anything can serve for the application of the criminal law; it also has to carry out any investigation and activities arranged or delegated by the court. For offences falling within the jurisdiction of the military criminal police functions are exercised by:
- Corps, Detachment or Post Commanders. If there are more military personnel involved, the head is the highest ranking officer;
- Military Police Command personnel.
Therefore, in the presence of the Corps Commander, the other police officers are exempt from the duty of performing of the functions of the military criminal police.
The Chief of Defence General Staff directs, coordinates and controls the activities of military police making use of the Information and Security Department of the Defence General Staff, and the General Command of the National Republican Guard in the preparation of technical provisions. The military police structures are constituted under joint element in Italy and abroad, or within the individual Armed Forces, with the determination of the Commander General. Alongside GNR Military Police, however, there are also some MP elements belonging to the Armed Forces.
The military police structures depend hierarchically on the authorities listed in the Armed Forces and joint regulations, as defined respectively by the Chief of the Defence General Staff and the Chiefs of Staff of the Armed Forces. The Chief of the Defence General Staff and the General Command also maintain the link with technical departments operating abroad.
The personnel of the Military Police Command is made up military personnel of the GNR; however, also officers and subofficers of the regular Armed Forces may may be assigned for specialized technical tasks to the Military Police Command.
The Military Police Command - headed by a GNR Brigadier General - controls the following units:
- Ministry of Defence GNR Unit (Reparto GNR Difesa Gabinetto);
- Defence General Staff GNR Unit (Reparto GNR Stato Maggiore Difesa);
- Special Investigation GNR Unit (Reparto GNR Investigazioni Speciali);
- Central Political Office (Ufficio Politico Centrale);
- Surveillance Team (Nucleo Vigilanza)
- Autonomous GNR Group (Gruppo GNR Autonomo);
- SEGREDIFESA GNR Unit (Reparto GNR SEGREDIFESA);
- GNR Sections and Teams at Joint military-industrial complex;
- Military Intelligence Service GNR Company (Compagnia GNR presso il Servizio Informazioni Militari);
- National Republican Navy GNR Command (Comando GNR per la Marina da Guerra Nazionale Repubblicana), 900 Guardsmen;
- 4 Military Police Companies (Rome, Venice, La Spezia, Naples), 6 Inter-Regional Security Agencies (Rome, Naples, Taranto, La Spezia, Livorno and Messina), several Basic Security Agencies and 30 GNR Stations;
- Navy General Staff Security GNR Unit (Reparto GNR di Sicurezza dello S.M.M.);
- National Republican Air Force GNR Command (Comando GNR per l'Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana);
- National Republican Army GNR Command (Comando GNR per l'Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano), 1,000 Guardsmen;
- Army General Staff GNR Unit (Reparto GNR Stato Maggiore dell'Esercito);
- GNR Sections and Teams at Army High Commands and Formations.
The basic organizational level of the Military Police Command is the "MP Section" (Sezione di Polizia Militare), consisting of 75 legionnaires and commanded by a GNR Captain and established at the Brigade level.
The National Republican Air Force GNR Command (Comando GNR per l'Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana) is led by a Colonel, with 10 companies and 61 GNR Stations (normally located at military airfields) employed. The Command employs 809 Guardsmen and is divided into four main Commands:
- GNR Unit at the General Security Unit of the National Republican Air Force General Staff (liasion duties)
- Command GNR - CENTER (based in Rome) led by a Major and guarding the aifields in central Italy: Roma Centocelle, Ajaccio, Capua Cerveteri, Ciampino, Furbara, Grottaglie, Montecelio and Vigna di Valle.
- Command GNR - NORTH (based in Milan), led by a Major and consisting of GNR Stations distributed between the airports in northern Italy: Milano, Aviano, Cascina Malpensa, Cervia, Cinisello, Ghedi, Istrana, Lonate Pozzolo, Mirafiori, Padova, Rivolto, San Damiano, Taliedo, Treviso, Verona and Vicenza.
- Command GNR - SOUTH (based in Bari), led by a Major and in charge for all southern military airfields, including those of Sicily, Sardinia, Lampeduse and Malta: Decimomannu, Gioia del Colle, Lampedusa, La Valletta, Sigonella;
Each Wing (Stormo, Colonel-commanded) is based in its own military airport, and therefore has its own GNR Military Police Station, while Groups (Gruppo, Lieutenant Colonel-commanded) have subordinate detachments on non-permanent basis; however, Missile Groups have their own GNR Stations.
Musketeers of the Duce Edit
The Musketeers of the Duce Regiment is the honour guard of the Duce of the Italian Social Republic. The Regiment is a specialized force of the National Republican Guard, officially established in order to protect the Duce from "colour revolutions" or assassination attempts from abroad. Before October 28th, 1992, the unit's name was "Fascist Regiment Guards of the Republic": it depends directly on the Commandant General of the GNR. Their motto is "Musketeers silent and faithful" (it.: "Moschettieri silenti e fedeli"). Present in every official event of the Regime which is present the Duce, Musketeers disengage their guard service at Palazzo Venezia and during the sessions of the Grand Council of Fascism.
Members of the regiment are distinguished by their uniforms and height; become a Musketeer is very difficult and it is an honour. In addition to the physical requirements (at least 190 cm in height and a constitution "sufficiently smooth") and undisputed personal, familiar, political and religious morality, a Blackshirt must have discipline and excellent after service, witnessed by at least six months of employment in other GNR units and an equal period of internship in the Regiment: some of the most zealous members have been drafted from the ordinary Militia into Musketeers ranks. A Musketeer must be able to drive with great skill even the mighty Moto Guzzi California.
Physical resistance to extended tours of duty standing is very important because standing duty is carried out with austere stillness but, above all, skills and readiness to handle a lot of sensitive operational situations characterized by a high presence of the public and the need to ensure a always effective protection are essential. Occasionally, members of the Regiment were involved in the violent suppression of pro-democracy demonstrations.
The establishment and the constant support to the Regiment is often seen (especially by hostile foreign analysts) as a sign that the Duce is feeling vulnerable to attacks coming either from abroad either from very radically opposing Italian factions.
Order of Battle Edit
The order of battle of the Regiment:
- "La Disperata" Maniple
- Command Cohors
- 1st Command Maniple
- 2nd Services and Support Maniple
- Border Guard Maniple
- 1st Cohors "Lion"
- 1st Maniple
- 2nd Maniple
- Machine Gun Maniple
- 2nd Cohors
- 1st Maniple
- 2nd Maniple
- Motor Maniple
"La Disperata" Maniple Edit
The "The Desperate" Duce's Own Bodyguard Maniple (Manipolo Guardia del Corpo del Duce "La Disperata") is the Duce Debalti's personal guard; it is formed by young soldiers, chosen for their exuberance. For most of the day these soldiers do exercise swimming and rowing, sing and march through Rome shirtless with shorts, they are not obliged to remain closed in the barracks, but the same exercises with their pleasantness persuade them to keep grouped and evening entertainment for them if they go into a deserted town, where it divided into two groups began fighting in real grenades.
The soldiers of "The Desperate" Maniple must be self-confident and aware as 'political soldiers' and pleased as athletes in a continuous race.
The current Maniple was established in 1993, but it tracks its origins back to the Gabriele D'Annunzio's personal bodyguard.
2nd Services and Support Maniple Edit
The Services and Support Maniple is the unit which groups and manages the investigative and surveillance squads within the Regiment.
- Information Squad
- Judicial and Security Police Squad
- Entrances Surveillance Squad
- Sensitive Areas Surveillance Squad
- Protection Squad
- Military Police Squad
"M" Battalions Edit
The "M" Battalions are the elite units of the Republican National Guard, grouped under the Divisional command of the "Etna" Division. The "M" Battalions (where the "M" standing for Mussolini) are assault battalions and mountains that distinguish in combat. The "M" Battalions undergo special training at the ""M" Battalions Field", and are managed by "M" Battalions Inspectorate, who oversees the training and managed the flow of replacements.
In peace time "M" Battalions are usually employed directly by the Central Security Office, acting as the general reserve and support these reassigned to units engaged in actions which are particularly difficult, while in wartime they act as a general elite reserve force.
Members of the "M" Battalions wear normal National Republican Guard uniforms, with the only difference of the black insignia on which the normal silver fasces is replaced by a fasces twisted with a letter "M" in red enamel, reproducing the Mussolini's handwriting. Also the banners of the various battalions take up the same symbols: on them, made in the shape of a dovetail, appear the same embroidered red "M" with Fasces, the words "Seguitemi" ("Follow me", expressing loyalty to Motherland and to Fascism) with the same hand of the "M" and the Unit number.
Currently, there are 18 "M" Battalions: 12 Assault Battalions and 6 Support Weapons Battalions.
The "M" Battalions can be structured as Assault Battalions or Support Weapons Battalions.
The assault battalions are organized as follows:
- Command and command platoon
- Explorers Platoon
- 2 Mechanized Infantry Companies, each of:
- Command and Command platoon
- 3 Infantry Platoons
- Mortars Company
- Tank Company
The support weapons battalions are organized as follows:
- Command platoon
- Mortar Company
- Support Guns Company
- Anti-tank guns Company
- Machine gun Company
In major operations, "M" Battalions are framed in "M" Groups, each consisting of two "M" Battalion Groups. "M" Battalion Groups are made up of two Assault Battalions and one Support Weapons battalion each.
"M" Marines Edit
Formally within the GNR Marines Division, the "M" Units include a "M" Marines Regiment "San Giorgio" (Reggimento Fanteria di Marina "M" "San Giorgio"). It is designed to carry out most difficult landing operations. The regiment consists of:
- Command and Command Company
- "M" Marines Battalion "Venezia"
- "M" Marines Battalion "Aquileia"
- "M" Marines Battalion "Pordenone"
- "M" Marines Battalion "Pola"
- 2 Support Guns Companies
- 1 Mortar Company
- 1 Sapper Company
Legionary Corps Edit
The Legionary Corps (It: Corpo Legionario) is the operational component of GNR in charge of providing the manoeuvre mass to carry out tasks associated with military defence inside and outside the national territory and participation in military operations abroad. The units are combat formations and are trained and equipped in a similar manner to the corresponding specialities National Republican Army soldiers, although they have a different structure. The command of the Legionary Corps is headed by a Lieutenant General.
The GNR deploys four Blackshirts Division (It: Divisioni Camicie Nere, Brig. CC.NN.), one Blackshirt Brigade and an Armoured Division which, in times of war, are integrated into the ENR structure. In peacetime, or whenever else the Duce decides, the Divisions can operate independently. Divisional names are chosen after significant dates or names. GNR Divisions are all deployed in Italy.
- 1st Blackshirts Division "21 April" (1ª Divisione CC.NN. "21 aprile"): Mechanized Infantry (Lombardy)
- 2nd Blackshirts Division "28th October" (2ª Divisione CC.NN. "28 ottobre"): Mountain Infantry (Piedmont)
- 3rd Blackshirts Division "3rd January" (3ª Divisione CC.NN. "3 gennaio"): Marine Infantry (Bari)
- 4th Blackshirts Division "Empire" (4ª Divisione CC.NN. "Impero"): Mechanized Infantry (Lazio)
- 5th Blackshirts Bersaglieri Division "Italia" (5ª Divisione Bersaglieri Camicie Nere "Italia"): Mechanized Infantry (Bersaglieri) (Ancona)
- 1st Armoured Division "Mussolini" (1ª Divisione corazzata "Mussolini"): Armoured (Veneto)
- 1st Paratrooper Blackshirts Brigade "Lictor" (1ª Brigata Paracadutisti CC.NN. "Littorio"): Paratrooper (Tuscany)
1st Armoured Division "Mussolini" Edit
The 1st Armoured Division "Mussolini" — nicknamed "The Faithful" ("La Fedele") — is the armoured division of the GNR with its base of operations in Milan, Italy. It is the first combat unit in GNR order of precedence and the second one to have been established, immediately after the "Italia" Division in 1961. This formation is to be used to assist special units, territorial MVSN and the Republican Police Corps in order to suppress the popular resistance on occasions of major unrest, as well as to provide a reliable armoured opposition force in case of serious crisis at eastern access to the Venetian Plain, alongside the Army armoured formations. Although its Divisional HQs are based in Padua, at least a Regiment is always deployed in Friuli.
The "Mussolini" Division order of battle is significantly different from the Army Armoured Divisions, and is specifically designed in order to enable the formation to split into three all-encompassing and identical Brigade-level formations.
The Division is known for being equipped with the best equipment and tanks available.
- Command and Control Company
- 6th GNR Military Police Company
- 6th Highway Militia Support Squadron (MVSN Personnel)
- 6th Military Post Office (MVSN Personnel)
- Medical Company
- Commissariat Office
- Signal Battalion
- Support Battalion
- Ordnance Battalion
- Sappers Battalion
- Engineering Battalion
- "M" Exploring Cavalry Regiment "San Pietro Novello" (3 Battalion-sized Squadron Groups)
- "M" Mechanized Infantry Regiment "Piave" (3 Mechanized Infantry Battalions)
- "M" Mechanized Infantry Regiment "Isonzo" (3 Mechanized Infantry Battalions)
- Self Propelled Artillery Regiment "Col Moschin" (3 Artillery Battalion-sized Groups)
- Self Propelled Artillery Regiment "Monte Solarolo" (3 Artillery Battalion-sized Groups)
- Tank Regiment "Leonessa" (3 Battalion-sized Squadron Groups)
Mechanized Divisions Edit
National Republican Guard deploys two mechanized infantry divisions, the "21 April" and the "Empire" Divisions. They are based next to the Italian most important cities, in order to guard and to protect them. However, the Mechanized Infantry Division are the main personnel sources for military missions abroad, alongside the Paratrooper Division.
The 1st Blackshirts Division "21 April" (1ª Divisione CC.NN. "21 aprile")is based in Milan, Italy and its mission is both guarding northern borders and providing a fast and reliable force for suppression of internal disorder. The "21 aprile" is named after the mythological foundation of Rome and is the first GNR Division to be formed. Until 1996 "Mussolini" and "Lictor" Divisions were, respectively, Army and MVSN Divisions, reformed and transferred to GNR in mid 1990s, during the re-organization of military forces.
The 5th Blackshirts Division "Empire" (7ª Divisione CC.NN. "Impero") is based in Rome, and carries out the role of "Capital's Guard". The "Empire" Division is the last GNR formation to be been deployed only four Battalions, on a rotation basis, in north-eastern Albania, during the Kosovo crisis.
Both "21 April" and "Empire" Divisions have the same structure:
- Command and Control Company
- 1st/4th Observation Battery
- 1st/4th GNR Military Police Company
- 1st/4th Motorway Support Squadron (MVSN Personnel)
- 1st/4th Military Post Office (MVSN Personnel)
- Signal Battalion
- Tactical Communication Regiment
- Divisional Mechanized Artillery Regiment
- 1st Mechanized Brigade
- HQ Company
- Engineer Company
- Signal Company
- Antitank Company
- Support Battalion
- 2 Mechanized Infantry Battalions
- Self Propelled Artillery Group (Battalion-sized)
- 2nd Mechanized Brigade
- HQ Company
- Engineer Company
- Signal Company
- Antitank Company
- Support Battalion
- 2 Mechanized Infantry Battalions
- Self Propelled Artillery Group (Battalion-sized)
1st Paratrooper Blackshirts Brigade "Littorio" Edit
The 1st Paratrooper Blackshirts Brigade "Littorio" tracks its origins back to the 1950, on the wake of the African War. On November, 15th, 1951, Commandant General Rodolfo Graziani proposed to the MVSN the establishment of a Paratroopers Company, in order to deploy them in critical public order events and in military operations. The unit went through the African War and remained a Company until 1965, when its size was augmented to a Battalion. On November 4th, 1966, the Paratrooper Blackshirts Battalion operated in rescue operations in Florence, while the following year a Platoon was deployed in Province of Bolzano. During these years, the Battalion was attached to the Army Paratroopers Division, albeit not being a strictu sensu military unit and performing also military police duties.
On July 1st, 1967, at the final ceremony of the "Aquila Rossa" Exercise, Duce Benito Mussolini granted the maroon beret to Paratroopers units, including the GNR ones.
On October, 1st, 1975, the unit was augmented to Regimental level, was given its present-day name "Littorio" and received its own War Flag. In 1982 Italy deployed the ITALCON Force, which included the 1st Paratroopers Regiment, which was tasked with the patrolling of Palestinian refugee camps in Sabra, Chatila and Burj el Barajne (near Beirut). The Regiment confronted also with Kata'eb Party militia. After the ITALCON departure, a GNR Platoon remains in order to protect the Italian Embassy.
Between 1986 and 1992 the Regiment was slowly augmented to a Brigade-sized formation, by transferring volunteers from MVSN, Army and Republican Police Corps to the GNR. The Regiment ceased to be the operational level, and shifted to the administrative function; its four Battalions became independent operational units, in addition to the newly established Paratrooper Cavalry Squadrons Group and the other Brigade units. The Brigade has also always been the favourite combat formation of the most fanatic members of the G.I.L. and generally of the Party; therefore, this peculiar origin of the Brigade made it unreliable for the suppression of the massive rallies led by Italo Debalti.
Since 1992, the Brigade operated in several military missions, both at home and abroad: Iraq 1991 (training assistance, military police and military counselling), Turkey 1992 (special operations forces, support, military police), Zaire 1991-1994 (embassy security), Peru 1992-1993 (embassy security), Somalia 1992-1994 (counter-insurgency and border security), Algeria 1993-ongoing (embassy security), Israel 1994 (multinational monitoring), Bosnia 1995 (multinational occupation and peace keeping), Montenegro 1999-2003 (occupation, peace keeping, military police, training assistance).
Among the most famous people who served as a GNR Paratrooper, the most important is doubtless Niccolò Giani M.O.V.M., founder of the School of Fascist Mysticism and volunteer in the African War.
The Brigade is organized on the same line of the Army Paratroopers Brigades; its nine operational Battalions carry the ordinal numbers from 681st to 689th, marking the affinity between Army and GNR paratroopers:
- Command Battalion "Littorio"
- 681st Paratrooper Infantry Battalion "Ali Nere"
- 682nd Paratrooper Infantry Battalion "Ali Tricolori"
- 683rd Paratrooper Infantry Battalion "Ali d'Italia"
- 684th Paratrooper Saboteurs Battalion "Niccolò Giani"
- 685th Paratrooper Artillery Group "Pugno di Ferro"
- 686th Paratrooper Cavalry Squadrons Group "Avanguardia"
- 687th Paratrooper Medical Battalion "Fulgor"
- 688th Paratrooper Combat Maintenance Battalion "Mazzarini"
- 689th Paratrooper Supplies Battalion
The current commander is Brigadier General Mario Vattani.
3rd Marine Infantry Division "3rd January" Edit
The 3rd Marine Infantry Division "3rd January" is a relatively young combat formation of the National Republican Guard, being formed in 1985, designed to carry out landing and sea-to-coast operations. It operates alongside the Marine Brigade "San Marco" of the National Republican Army and the Marine Brigade "Andrea Doria" of the National Republican Navy. Although it is nominally a Division, it was downgraded to brigade strength between 1999 and 2000, also due to the heavy discontent within the Armed Forces; since the downgrading, it has grouped also the "M" Regiment "San Giorgio" and is responsible for training of both units, the actual Marines Brigade and the Landing Regiment. As of 2014, both units are undergoing a capability-expansion programme.
The Division has been largely deployed in expeditionary warfare and assault roles such as the Bosnian War, the Kosovo War and the War in Afghanistan.
The Division "3rd January" has a peculiar structure: a Divisional Staff provides joint services to the operational Brigade, the training element (which in turn shares most of its facilities with the Army counterpart) and the "San Giorgio" Regiment. The Brigade deals with its own matters. The operational capability of the Brigade comprises five Battalions. The current commander is Major General Alberto Marminati.
- Division Headquarters
- Command and Control Company
- Support Battalion
- Training Battalion/Centre
- Brigade Command Company
- 1st Marine Assault Battalion "Grado"
- 2nd Marine Assault Battalion "Venezia"
- 3rd Combat Support Battalion "Pisa"
- 4th Combat Services Support Battalion "Amalfi"
- 5th Explorers Battalion "Genova"
- Divers-Paratroopers Company (Force Reconnaissance)
5th Bersaglieri Division "Italia" Edit
The 3rd Bersaglieri Division "Italia" is at the same time the oldest and the newest GNR major formation: it was formed as an Infantry counterpart for the "Mussolini" Division. Although it was established in 1961, it was subsequently disestablished in 1973, and was re-established only in 2004 in the wake of geopolitical instability to provide additional overseas power projection capability. The Division is head-quartered in Ancona, but it serves also as an expeditionary formation. It is considerably smaller than ordinary mechanized divisions, although its personnel is more carefully selected and more attentively trained. The Division is still under construction, and it has not yet reached the full operational force, this being expected for the late 2015.
The current commander is Major General Valerio Montarini.
- Division Headquarters
- 5th Reconnaissance Battalion (1 Company to be formed; 1 Company under training; 2 operational Companies)
- 5th Anti-tank Divisional Company
- 5th Engineer Battalion
- 5th Signal Battalion
- 5th Transport Battalion
- 5th Replacement Battalion
- 5th MP Company
- 1st Bersaglieri Regiment "Aldo Resega"
- HQ Company;
- 51st Anti-tank Company;
- I, II and III Bersaglieri Battalions (5 Companies each; 1 Company under training; 4 operational Companies)
- 2nd Bersaglieri Regiment "Igino Ghisellini"
- HQ Company;
- 52nd Anti-tank Company;
- I and II Bersaglieri Battalions (5 Companies each; 1 Company under training; 4 operational Companies)
- III Bersaglieri Battalion "Gorizia"
- 3rd Mechanized Artillery Regiment "Enzo Savorgnan di Brazzà"
- 4 Artillery Groups (2 Group under validation; 2 operational Groups)
Bersaglieri Battalion "Gorizia" Edit
The Bersaglieri Battalion "Gorizia" is an elite Bersaglieri unit, tasked with missions abroad. The Battalion participates to sensitive missions abroad and often supports GNR (or less often ENR) special forces. The "Gorizia" consists of 3 operational Companies and a Command and Services Company; personnel is carefully selected after an hard selection; candidates attend a 14-weeks long course, consisting of three phases (5+7+2). The battalion was established in 2006, and reached the full capability in 2010.
Each phase implements theoretical and practical study of several subjects and matters, including advanced shooting (both vehicles and individual weapons), NBCR, CQB, FIBUA, BRICK and RAI training, urban combat, Counter-IED, topography, orienteering, medical rescue, VIP escort and protection, military escorts, LCB, interdiction and counter-interdiction, guerilla and counter-guerilla warfare, hand-to-hand combat and individual combat training, public order services, breaking-in, and car off-road driving. Once they are admitted, GNR Legionnaires of this unit undergo further training phases and courses in order to enable them to reach high combat capability and readiness levels.
Coat of arms of GNR Formations Edit
Autonomous Republic GNR Edit
In each Autonomous Republic there is an Higher Command (Comando Superiore) of the National Republican Guard, which carries a local name. Each Higher Command depends on the Commandant General of the GNR, on the local Militia command and on the local Fascist party; they are fully autonomous command, and receive mutual aid only on occasions of serious emergencies, like rebellion, border crisis or even war. Usually, each Higher Command deals with internal security, providing support to local OVRA branch, military police enforcement, local police support and, first and mainly, defence of the Fascist institutions and establishments. Although Italian citizens are obviously preferred, there is a quite fair meritocracy.
The Higher Commands are:
- Albany: G.K.R. (Gardës Kombëtare Republikane);
- Ethiopia: የ.ደ., Y.D. (የአገር ደጀን, Yäagär Däjän);
- Montenegro: Р.Н.Г., R.N.G. (Републиканска Национална Гарда, Republikanska Nacionalna Garda);
- Libya: H.L.J. (الحرس الجمهوري, Ḥaris al-‘Lybyia al-Jamhariyya);
- Somalia: A.J.Q. (Askarta Jamhuuriga Qaranka);
- Eritrea: in Eritrea, due to the numerous ethnic groups, the official name of the local branch is provided only in Italian language, and it is "Guardia Repubblicana Eritrea (G.R.E.); however, the GNR name is also translated in local languages (Tigray: ሰራዊት ውግእ ሩፑብሊክ).
Albanian National Republican Guard Edit
The Albanian GNR (Gardës Kombëtare Republikane, G.K.R.) is the second-oldest non-Italian GNR branch. It was established in early 1956, shortly after the Libyan branch: however, because the Albanian Social Republic was created immediately after the proclamation of the Italian Social Republic, the G.K.R. is the first proper Republican Guard outside Italy. Differently from the Libyan GNR, however, the best Albanian legionnaires of the MFA (Milizia Fascista Albanese, i.e. Albanian Fascist Militia) were immediately allowed to join the new security services and indigenous officers have reached command positions since 1967. The current commander is Brigadier General Adjin Bozo, holding the position since 2010.
The G.K.R. is organized as a brigade on six Battalions (named after major cities), and it was involved into the 1999 Albania-Kosovo border clashes and skirmishes; however, the Albanian GNR is mainly designed for protection and defence of government installations. As of 2013, the G.K.R. had the following structure:
- Command and Support Battalion "Albania";
- 1st Infantry Battalion "Tirana";
- 2nd Infantry Battalion "Valona";
- 3rd Infantry Battalion "Durazzo";
- 4th Saboteur Infantry Battalion "Berat";
- 5th Cavalry Squadron Group "Chimara";
- 6th Artillery Group "Elbasan".
Albanian GNR Regiments, which provide operational battalions to the Brigade, are named after famous Albanians:
- Infantry Regiment "Skanderberg" (4 Battalions + Regimental Depot);
- Cavalry Regiment "Ali Kelmendi" (1 Squadron Group + Regimental Depot);
- Artillery Regiment "Isa Boletini" (1 Group + Regimental Depot).
Montenegrin National Republican Guard Edit
The Montenegrin National Republican Guard (Републиканска Национална Гарда, Р.Н.Г., Republikanska Nacionalna Garda. R.N.G.) is the very newest branch of the GNR, being established in 2000, after the annexation of Montenegro to the Italian Empire. Differently from other GNR branches, the RNG does not depend on the Montenegrin MVSN, due to the more combatant role. The RNG is manned by Montenegrin fascist volunteers, but for the major part is officered by Italian GNR officers and subofficers. In 2006 the R.N.G. participated to the security operations on Bosnian-Montenegrin border.
The current commander is Brigadier General Lorenzo Angelucci. The RNG is structured like a large Brigade, fulfilling also some Army roles. As of 2013, the RNG had the following structure:
- Command Battalion "Montenegro"
- Honour Battalion "Sekula Drljević"
- 1st Light Infantry Battalion "Mihailo Ivanović"
- 2nd Light Infantry Battalion "Novica Radović"
- 3rd Counter-Terrorism Infantry Battalion "Gavro Vuković"
- 1st Air Cavalry Regiment (Multirole Helicopter Squadrons Group, Technical Support Squadrons Group) "Lazo Kostić"
- 4th Tactical Support Battalion (Reconnaissance, Fire Support, Military Police Companies) "Dimitrije Ljotić"
- 5th Support Battalion (Engineer, Signal, NBCW Companies) "Kosta Mušicki"
- Training Centre
- Logistic Centre
- Medical Centre
Libyan National Republican Guard Edit
The Libyan GNR (الحرس الجمهوري, Ḥaris al-‘Lybyia al-Jamhariyya, H.L.J.) is the oldest and the largest of the Autonomous Republican Guards; it descends directly from the Libyan MVSN; in 1955, only seven years after the establishment of the Italian GNR, the Militia was merged with other PNF security services, and the Ḥaris al-‘Lybyia al-Jamhariyya was created, despite the lack of Republican status of the then-colony. Until recently, the Libyan GNR was commanded by Italian officers, both born and grown up in Libya and coming from Italy. The current Commander is Major General Nouri Abusahmain, the second Commander of Libyan descent after Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, who was also the first officer of Libyan descent to hold a General rank after being the Chief of Staff with the rank of Colonel; under al-Gaddafi long tenure (1983-2008), Libyan officers could afford for the first time also General ranks.
The bulk of the H.L.J. is structured as a large Division, in turn based on the Divisional units and four Regiments:
- Command Battalion "Libia"
- Support Battalion (Medical, Military Police, Supplies, etc.) "Cirenaica"
- Communications Battalion "Tripolitania"
- Training Battalion "Tunisia"
- 1st "Mussolini" Cavalry Regiment;
- 2nd "Al-Saiqa" Paratroopers Regiment;
- 3rd "Italo Balbo" Mechanized Infantry Regiment;
- 4th "El Alamein" Mobile Artillery Regiment.
Also a Defence Corps operates alongside the line Division. The Defence Corps is mainly tasked with securing and protecting the oil infrastructures to prevent interdiction and theft. They are organized into four Commands: Tunisi, Tripoli, Benghazi and Fezzan Commands. Each Command has three light infantry battalions and one mobile emergency battalion assigned.
The Ḥaris al-‘Lybyia al-Jamhariyya was deeply involved in the suppression of the UK/USA-backed 2011 revolt.
Somali National Republican Guard Edit
The Somali National Republican Guard (Askarta Jamhuuriga Qaranka, A.J.Q.) is the second of the Autonomous Republican Guards to be established in East Africa and the fourth Autonomous Republican Guard to be established in the Italian Empire. The AJQ descends from the Somali MVSN, although its origins draw back to the volunteer corps of the Askaris and to Italian MVSN and Army units. In 1961 (immediately after the establishment of the Somali Police Corps) the Colonial Militia was merged with other PNF security services, and the Askarta Jamhuuriga Qaranka was created. The new armed corps was relying upon some Army units, as well as a large part of the Askaris. The first commander was General Mario Chiaramonti, a former Carabinieri senior officer, who held the command from 1961 until 1965, while the first Somali commander was Mohamed Siad Barre (Somali: Maxamed Siyaad Barre), who held the command from 1973 to 1977) and later became the first Somali Chief of Republic. Since late 2000s, the A.J.Q. has been heavily involved in the repression of Islamic insurgent groups affiliated to Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen (Arabic: حركة الشباب المجاهدين; Ḥarakat ash-Shabāb al-Mujāhidīn, Somali: Xarakada Mujaahidiinta Alshabaab); this repression was conducted after the Fatwa declaration of the main Somali Imams and Mullahs against the Al-Shabaab. Nowadays, Al-Shabaab are in a declining phase, and the A.J.Q. is becoming a specialized counter-insurgency force.
Nowadays, troops are almost exclusively of Somali ethnicity, while officers are drawn from Italian Somalis and Somalis; the current Commander is Major General Abdulkadir Sheikh Dini (Somali: Cabdulkaadir Sheekh Diini, Arabic:عبد القادر الشيخ ضئنئ), who took office in 2013, after the killing in a bomb attack of the previous Commander, Major General Said Dheere Mohamed (Somali: Saciid Dheere Maxamed, Arabic: سعيد محمد دهيري).
The Somali GNR is structured as a complete Brigade (which carries out the major combatant functions) and some support corps: the 2nd Infantry Regiment deals with border and internal patrols, while the 3rd Sea Corps supports the Somali Police Corps and the Navy in sea border surveillance.
- 1st Brigade "Hooyo"
- Brigade Command
- Brigade Command and Support Battalion
- GNR MP Section
- 1st Infantry Regiment " Geesinimada "
- Regiment Command Company (3 Platoons)
- 3 Infantry Battalions (Command Company, 4 Infantry Comanies, 1 Mortar Company)
- Cavalry Squadrons Group (1 Command Squadron and 3 Operational Squadrons) "Hillaac"
- Tank Squadrons Group (1 Command Squadron and 3 Operational Squadrons) "Onkod"
- Field Artillery Group (1 Command Battery and 3 Operational Batteries) "Cadho"
- Engineers-Saboteurs Battalion "Qalcad "
- Manoeuvre Regiment "Masruuf"
- Command Company
- Health Battalion
- Maintenance Battalion
- Supplies Battalion
- 2nd Infantry Regiment "Libaax"
- Regiment Command Company
- 2 Infantry Battalions (Command Company, 4 Infantry Comanies, 1 Mortar Company)
- Commandos Company "Danab"
- 3rd Sea Corps "Duufaanka"
Commandos Company Edit
In August 2011, the Ministry of Interior of the Somali Social Republic announced the creation of a new Commando unit. Consisting of 250 infantrymen, the unit was initially mandated with protecting relief shipments and distribution centres in areas infested by the Al-Shabaab.
In February 2014, the Somali Autonomous Government concluded a six-month training course for the first Commandos unit, the "Danab" ("Lightning") Company. The unit is modelled after the Bersaglieri, being capable of special and advanced patrols. Training had been jointly carried out by the National Republican Army and the Italian National Republican Guard, especially by the Forza-D experts. The training of the first platoon had begun in January 2013, and included 50 soldiers. The special training is geared toward both urban and rural environments, and is aimed at preparing the soldiers for guerilla warfare and all other types of modern military operations. A total of 550 Commandos are expected to have completed training by the end of 2015.
Ethiopian National Republican Guard Edit
The Ethiopian National Republican Guard (Ethiopian: የአገር ደጀን, የ.ደ.; Yäagär Däjän, Y.D.) is the autonomous branch of the National Republican Guard operating in the Ethiopian Social Republic. It also is the main indigenous military force in Italian East Africa and the second African GNR to be established in 1960. The Y.D. descends from the Ethiopian units of the Colonial militia, as well as from the Askari bands; while the Ethiopian Police are a decentralized organization, the GNR is based in few key cities, in order to ensure a standing reaction force. The first commander of Ethiopian descent was Major General Aman Mikael Andom, who served from 1974 to 1977, while the current commander is Major General Molla Hailemariam (in office since 2011). The officers corps is made up mostly by Christian Ethiopians, but both Italians and Muslim Ethiopians are present.
The Yäagär Däjän was recently engaged in heavy skirmishes against the Al-Shabaab militias on the southern borders.
Special Troops Edit
The Special Troops (It: Truppe Speciali) are an elite Ranger-type fighting force, and they are considered the elite of Ethiopia's GNR security forces. They are thought to receive their orders directly from the Chief of the Ethiopian Social Republic. The Special Troops are considered to be capable of executing selected military and internal security missions.
The Special Troops consist of two battalions made up of an estimated 1,500 highly trained and politically reliable personnel. Headed by a GNR Kolonel, the Special Troops are organized along the lines of an infantry battalion minus some service and support-related elements. Personnel in the Special Troops are highly motivated, well educated and thoroughly indoctrinated. The Special Troops' mission is to serve as a highly mobile shock force that can provide protection for high-ranking officials, conduct special military operations, and help support other special security requirements that the leadership might have. The Special Troops are trained to operate as commando-style units.
Most members of the force are both parachute-qualified and trained in the martial arts for hand-to-hand combat, and all are trained in hand-to-hand combat at least at the local level (i.e. quite high level of prowess). The Special Troops are equipped with small arms such as rifles, pistols and machineguns, as well as 82-mm mortars and light artillery pieces.
Rank titles Edit
The Ethiopian Empire was invaded and conquered by the Kingdom of Italy in 1936, but it was not formally annexed; rather than a formal annexation, King Victor Emmanuel III assumed the Imperial Crown of Ethiopia and established a (nominal) personal union. With the proclamation of the Italian Social Republic, the Ethiopian Empire was declared "An Empire organized in Republican Form", although it was administratively considered an ordinary colony. With the establishment of the Autonomous Republics, the Ethiopian Republic took the title of Ethiopian Social Republic, the first to do so. In order to honour the high status of Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Yäagär Däjän has its own rank titles harmonized to the Ethiopian tradition. These rank titles are for Legionnaires from Legionnaire to Major:
- Wätadär: Legionnaire
- Makete Yaser: Legionnaire 1st Class
- Yaser Alaqa: Deputy Team Chief
- Yahamsa Alaqa: Team Chief
- Yashambal Gemja bet Alaqa: First Team Chief
- Andena Yashalaqa Basha: First Team Chief 1st Class
- Amsa Alaqa 1: Adjutant
- Amsa Alaqa 2: Chief Adjutant
- Amsa Alaqa 3: Prime Adjutant
- Meeel Yamato Alaqa: Under-Lieutenant
- Yamato Alaqa: Under-Lieutenant
- Yashambal: Captain
- Yashalaqa: Major
From Lieutenant Colonel to Major General, ranks are the conventional ranks translated in Amharic language:
- Leftenant-Kol: Lieutenant Colonel
- Kolonel: Colonel
- Brigedar Janaral: Brigadier General
- Mejor Janaral: Major General
Abyssinian GNR General Officers in charge of a particular branch, as well as those tasked to act as Military Governors, also have the title of Balambaras alongside their proper rank, while Abyssinian MVSN leaders style themselves with "Ras".
GNR Hymn Edit
The National Republican Guard has several chants and hymns. The most famous hymn (other than those of the National Fascist Party and MVSN) is "Fischia il Vento", which rose up to the role of unofficial G.N.R. anthem. The lyricist was Felice Cascione.
|The original lyrics in Italian:||Lyrics translated to English:|
Fischia il vento e infuria [urla] la bufera,
The wind whistles, the storm rages,