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Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano
National Republican Army (ISR)
Flag of the National Republican Army
Active 1861 - Present
Country Italy
Branch Army
Size 300,000
Part of Italian Armed Forces
Headquarters Città Militare Cecchignola, Rome, Italy
March "Marcia del 24 Maggio"
Colors Field green
Major engagements
  • Wars of Independence
  • World War I
  • African War

Template:Infobox military unit

The National Republican Army (Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano, E.N.R.) is the ground force of the Italian Armed Forces. It is a partly-conscripted force of active-duty personnel. Its best-known combat vehicles are the Dardo infantry fighting vehicle, the Centauro tank destroyer and the Ariete tank, and among its aircraft the Mangusta attack helicopter. The headquarters of the Army General Staff are located in Rome, opposite the Presidential Palace. The army's history dates back to the unification of Italy in the 1850s and 1860s. The army fought in colonial engagements in China, Libya (1911-1912), northern Italy against permanence of the soviet bloc: the army prepared itself to defend against a Warsaw Pact invasion from the east, as well as the protection from the Lybian desert, Eastern Africa (including security operations) and the western Italian border.

As of 2012, the ENR consists of four line Army Corps, alongside two other Corps: Alpine Troops Corps and a Quick Action Corps.

Personnel Edit

There are three classes of personnel in the National Republican Army: professional, volunteer and conscript. As of 2012, the Italian Social Republic has mandatory military service (conscription) of 24 months for all males between the ages of 18 and 45.
Citizens discharged from active service are normally placed in the Reserve and are subject to periodic recall of 1–10 days at irregular intervals. Conscript enlisted men and non-commissioned officers wear special rank insignia to differentiate them from volunteers.
Professional officers graduate from the Military Academy (Accademia Militare) in Modena and then from the Application School (Scuola di Applicazione) in Turin, while the rest graduate from various Military Schools according to their specialization.

Supreme Command Edit

The Supreme Command (Comando Supremo) of the National Republican Army is represented by the Army General Staff (Stato Maggiore dell'Esercito, SME) in Rome, which is the body appointed to develop the policy of the Armed Force. For the activity of command and control over units of the Army, the Chief of Staff of the ENR - who holds the rank of Army General - has four High Commands, governed by four Army Corps Generals and by Inspectorate headed by a Lieutenant General. These five institutions with the SME are called, as a whole, "Supreme Command":

  • Land Forces Command (Comando delle Forze Terrestri), headquartered in Milan. It is responsible for organizing maneuver and operational units of the Army and controls all the manouver Corps.
  • Military Command of the Capital (Comando Militare della Capitale), based in Rome. It coordinates the activities related to the recruitment and Propaganda in the national territory and directs all Military Regions.
  • Logistic Command (Comando Logistico): headquartered in Rome which depend on the technical and functional units of logistics support and logistics for grip.
  • Army Training Command and Application School of Turin (Comando Formazione dell'Esercito e Scuola di Applicazione), is responsible for the initial training of all military personnel of the Army.
  • Inspectorate of Infrastructures (Ispettorato delle Infrastrutture): hierarchically presiding authorities of the Works and State Property Service.

It is to note that these Commands are closely linked to the Army General Staff, and that they are in no way capable of autonomous decisions.

Army General Staff Edit

The Army General Staff (Stato Maggiore dell'Esercito, SME) is the top-level body, assigned to the general co-ordination of the whole Supreme Command and of the Army. It is headed by an Army Corps General with Special Tasks, who holds the title of Under-Chief of Staff (Sottocapo di Stato Maggiore).
In order to fulfill its institutional goals, the Under-Chief of Staff uses three offices (Special Operations, Administration, and Under-Chief of Staff Office), the Department of Ground Transformation and five Units, that in turn control:

  • The Army Selection and recruitment National Centre (Centro Selezione Reclutamento Nazionale Esercito, CSRNE);
  • Military Penitentiary Organization;
  • Army Olympic Sports Centre;
  • Central Logistics Group.

Always within the SME, but reporting directly to the Chief of Staff, there is the General Office of the Chief of Staff, the Department of Employment of the Personnel of the Army and the Administration Directorate.
In addition, the Historical Office, the Central Military Library (which collects and preserves books and magazines preeminently of historical, military, political, sociological and scientific topic) and the Headquarters of the security, prevention and protection service, whose purpose is to coordinate the activities related to the accident prevention regulations of the Army, depend on the Under-Chief of Staff although these offices are not part of the Army General Staff.

Special Operations Office Edit

The Army Special Forces Command (Comando Forze Speciali Esercito, COM.FO.S.E.) is not a deployment command, being this role previously attributed entirely to the joint COFS, but it has the responsibility to devise, organize and conduct the training and preparation of Army Special Forces and Special Operations Forces.
The COMFOSE is the body responsible for harmonizing the common needs and to support, coordinate, rationalize and direct the action of these highly specialized units in the vital areas of recruitment, training, preparation, research and selection of materials, as well as for doctrinal elaboration and rules of use: the COMFOSE is placed directly under the Chief of Staff of the Army, interfacing with the Special Operations Office.

General Staff Units Edit

The General Staff is structured on five Units and a Department:

  • Unit I - Personnel legal and economic affairs: it oversees the policies of the military personnel. It is divided into two Sections, led by the Deputy Unit Commander and by the Commander of the CSRNE.
    • The Deputy Unit Commander directs three offices: Recruitment Status and Advancement Office; Economic Affairs Office; Legal Office.
    • The Commander of CSRNE directs: the Army Selection and recruitment National Centre (Foligno); the six Centers of Conscripted Personnel Selection (Padua, Rome, Naples, Bari, Palermo, Cagliari).
  • Unit II - General and Financial Planning: has the task of "looking to the future" in all fields of the Armed Force. In this context, it executes the subsequent programming.
  • Unit III - Use of Force and Army Operations Centre: it conducts research, development and general guidance in the fields of operational planning. The Unit is divided into three major areas directed by the Deputy Unit Commander - Security Officer, the Deputy Chief Operations Centre and the Deputy Chief of the Forces Preparation Centre.
    • The Deputy Unit Commander commands the "Military Penitentiary Organization", the Office of Information and Security and the National Republican Guard Detachment SME.
    • The Deputy Chief Operations Centre commands the Plans Office and the Current Operations Office (Operations Room).
    • The Deputy Chief of the Forces Preparation Centre commands the Training Office, the Doctrine and Lessons Learned Office, Weaponry Control Section and Military Penitentiary Organization.
  • Unit IV - Logistics: it oversees the design and development of the choices for the Army logistics. Unlike the other Units of the SME, the is organized into two "areas", which are dedicated to "Weapon Systems" and the "C4IEW and Infrastructures". Each "area" is divided into "Offices" in turn divided into "Sections".
  • Unit V - General Affairs: it is responsible for the matter "Personnel welfare", with particular reference to social protection and welfare benefits. The Unit oversees ceremonial and external relations, coordinating the grant of the Army competitions. The Unit also manages marketing and propaganda communications of the Army, in particular for everything related to the Web and Recruitment. The Unit is also custodian of the historical heritage of the Armed Force. The Unit V - General Affairs is ordered on five offices: General Affairs Office, Press Office, Documentary Flows and IT Protocol Office, Marketing and Internet Office, Historical Office. Under the Unit V, there is the Central Logistics Group.
  • Department of Ground Transormation: has the mandate to coordinate and direct the process of modernization of the Ground military instrument, with a holistic approach of the DOTMLPFI type.

Operational Forces Edit

File:Brigata Paracadutisti Folgore.png

The Land Forces Command (Comando delle Forze Terrestri, COM.FO.TER.), headquartered in Milan, is the key command is responsible for the administration, with unified vision, the training and the operational activities of the Italian land forces. The Commander of the Land Forces, directly dependent on the Army Chief of Staff, is responsible for the preparation, training and employment of forces and exercises its authority over all units with operational tasks, i.e. all units classed as “Combat”, “Combat Support”, “Combat Service Support” and those classed as “Communication and Information System” units, which are the two thirds of the whole Army. The COMFOTER is supported by a Command Unit, by an Operational Centre and by a Command Staff.
Within the National Republican Army, the Division is the functional army unit, and its commander is the administrator of every aspect of the formation: his staff train and administer the soldiers, officers, and commanders of the division's subordinate units. Generally, Divisions are garrisoned together and share the same, large installations. Soldiers and officers are kept togheter up to the company level; however, companies are transferred in and out of divisions as required; soldiers never belong to a particular regiment for extended periods, unless they are of some, particular specialties, which have few elements. The Divisional system, being based on an industrial model of specialization and fixed division of labours, encourages its members to think of themselves as a functional organization and the majority of responsibility is placed with the officers, while the Senior NCO's were mainly concerned with administration of the men. The ENR system emphasis the loyalty to the Fatherland and to the Fascist Idea rather than the way the Regiment's way of life. Horizontal bonding is made mor difficult by the centralized clubs. The ENR Divisional soldiers are required to be patriotic towards Country, loyal to the Army and devoutly religious, while are identifcation with the history and traditions of their Regiment.
However, the Divisional system, while being perfectly capable to produce brigades, is less effective than the British model in prolonged low intensity conflicts, when small elements find themselves for some reason operating in isolation, without their fire support, and with nothing to fall back upon except their courage. For this reason, elite units elements are kept togheter as long as possible.
The National Republican Army operational forces consist of six Army Corps: the first four Corps are the line Corps, and they are homogeneously distributed across Italy; the Fifth Army Corps is the Alpine Army Corps, and it is headquartered in Bolzano and its formations guard the Alpi and some regions of the Appennini; the sixth Army Corps is the Quick Action Corps, headquartered in Palermo and responsible of quick reaction duties. The Metropolitan Army consists of 16 Combat Divisions and some Combat Brigades: five Armoured Divisions, 4 Mechanized Infantry Divisions, 12 Mechanized Infantry autonomous Brigades, five Alpine Divisions, one Rocket Artillery Brigade, one Airborne Brigade, one Marine Infantry Brigade, one RISTA-EW Brigade and four Paratrooper Brigades.
The Army-wide system is applied on armoured and infantry divisions, while a vague adaptation of the British Regimental system is kept on the marine infantry (all soldiers serving in the Brigade start, continue and end their career in this formation) and on the Alpine Corps (which has an identity quite different from the rest of the Army and keeps Alpine personnel within its ranks up to Brigade General).

File:Divisioni Fanteria ENR.png
  • 1st Army Corps: HQ Rome
    • 1st Armoured Division "Ariete"
    • 1st Mechanized Infantry Division (Bersaglieri) "Garibaldi"
    • 2nd Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Granatieri d'Italia"
    • 3rd Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Sforzesca"
    • 4th Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Roma"
    • 1st Paratrooper Brigade "Folgore"
    • Rocket Artillery Brigade "Aspis"
File:Divisione corazzata Freccia ENR.png
  • 2nd Army Corps: HQ Milan
    • 2nd Armoured Division "Centauro"
    • 5th Mechanized Infantry Division (Bersaglieri) "Cacciatori d'Africa"
    • 6th Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Sassari"
    • 7th Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Lupi di Toscana"
    • 16th Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Lazio"
    • 2nd Paratrooper Brigade "Nembo"
  • 3rd Army Corps: HQ Neaples
    • 3rd Armoured Division "Freccia"
    • 8th Mechanized Infantry Division (Bersaglieri) "Repubblica"
    • 9th Mechanized Infantry Division "Cagliari"
    • 10th Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Brennero"
    • 15th Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Lombardia"
    • 3rd Paratrooper Brigade "Ciclone"
File:Divisioni Alpine ENR.png
  • 4th Army Corps: HQ Verona
    • 4th Armoured Division "Bir El Gobi"
    • 11th Mechanized Infantry Division (Bersaglieri) "Mazzini"
    • 12th Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Mantova"
    • 13th Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Friuli"
    • 14th Mechazined Infantry Brigade "Veneto"
    • 4th Paratrooper Brigade "Uragano"
  • 5th Alpine Army Corps: HQ Bolzano
    • 1st Alpine Division "Taurinense"
    • 2nd Alpine Division "Tridentina"
    • 3rd Alpine Division "Julia"
    • 4th Alpine Division "Cacciatori delle Alpi"
    • 5th Alpine Division "Monte Rosa"
  • 6th Quick Action Corps: HQ Palermo
    • 5th Armoured Division "Dardo"
    • 5th Airborne Brigade "La Spezia"
    • 1st Marine Infantry Brigade "San Marco"

plus other units.

Mechanized Infantry Division Edit

Mechanized Infantry Divisions are usually assigned missions as destroy enemy armed forces and to control land area including population and resource centres. They operate within a Corps or a major joint task force. Such units conduct sustained combat operations under all conditions. Being an heavy formation, a typical division of that type accomplishes movement to conduct contact, attacks, exploitations, and pursuit of enemy forces, being capable to disperse over great distances and concentrate rapidly from widely separate areas. However, mechanized division's heavy equipment can not be lifted by Army aircraft, but have to rely on Air Force, and mobility is havily restricted by jungle, dense forest, steep, rugged terrain, and major water obstacles.
Operations entrusted to the mechanized divisions include offensive, defensive and retrograde operations, as well as acting as a covering force. In addition, mechanized divisions provide organic air defence against low altitude aircraft.
The Air Cavalry Brigade is the main air organization, being designed to fight, command, and resource aviation forces. The typical brigade consists of 131 aircraft and has a headquarters and headquarters squadron, a cavalry squadrons group, a command aviation squadron, an assault helicopter squadron and one or two attack helicopter squadrons groups.
These formations are capable of performing organizational and direct support maintenance of their organic equipment. A Mechanized Infantry Division includes 4 Tank Squadrons Groups (1 Tank Regiment), 5 Infantry Battalions (1 Infantry Regiment) and 5 Artillery Groups (1 Artillery Regiment).

  • Headquarters Company
  • GNR MP Divisional Section
  • Chemical Company
  • 1 Signal Battalion (1 Command Company, 3 Area Signal Companies, 1 Signal Support Company)
  • 1 EW Battalion (1 Command & Ops Company, 3 EW Companies, 1 EW Support company)
  • 1 Engineer Regiment
    • Command and Support Company
    • 3 Engineer Battalions (3 Engineer Companies each)
  • 1 Divisional Artillery Regiment
    • Command and Support Company
    • 3 Field Artillery Groups (3 Batteries each)
    • 1 MLRS Group (2 MLRS Batteries)
    • 1 Air Defence Group (3 Batteries, 1 missile Battery)
  • Armoured Brigade
    • Command Company
    • 2 Tank Squadrons Groups (1 Command Squadron, 4 Tank Squadrons each)
    • 1 Infantry Battalion (1 Command Company, 4 Infantry Companies)
    • GNR MP Section
  • Infantry Brigade "A"
    • Command Company
    • 1 Tank Squadrons Group (1 Command Squadron, 4 Tank Squadrons)
    • 2 Infantry Battalions (1 Command Company, 4 Infantry Companies each)
    • GNR MP Section
  • Infantry Brigade "B"
    • Command Company
    • 1 Tank Squadrons Group (1 Command Squadron, 4 Tank Squadrons)
    • 2 Infantry Battalions (1 Command Company, 4 Infantry Companies each)
    • GNR MP Section
  • Air Cavalry Brigade
    • 1 Support Air Cavalry Squadrons Group (1 Command Squadron, 2 Support Squadrons)
    • 2 Attack Air Cavalry Squadrons Groups (3 Attack Squadrons each)
    • 1 Cavalry Squadrons Group (3 Cavalry Squadrons, 2 Air Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadrons)
    • GNR MP Section

Separate Brigades Edit

Separate brigades can be used to reinforce corps or divisions and can be shifted from unit to unit to tailor forces for combat. The separate brigade conducts independent operations, placed under the control of a higher command such as a corps and organized to provide its own combat support and support and with manoeuvre battalion-sized units.
The vast array of enemy forces and range of potential areas of conflict necessitate a tactical formation smaller than a division with its own support assets, capable of strategic and tactical deployments. The separate brigade allows the latitude in force projection options. The separate brigade's main focus is to defeat the enemy. It supports and conducts offensive, defensive, or retrograde operations as an independent force or part of a larger force such as a corps.

Paratroopers Brigade Edit

Paratroopers Brigades are mobile infantry brigades. Their primary mission is to deploy rapidly to conduct highly sensitive combat operations; in particular, Paratrooper Brigades are tasked to seize and hold vital objectives behind the enemy lines, until linking with support forces and, as an highly mobility unit, to exploit effects of non-conventional weapons. Alongside with primary missions, Paratroopers also act in order to carry out rescue operations (when special operations forces are deemed to be unnecessary) and to reinforce forward-deployed forces (mostly special forces), to serve as a strategic reserve and to conduct massive raids.
The five Army Paratroopers Brigades are highly valuable because they can operate both within a joint task force, both independently. They are able to conduct offensive, defensive and delay operations, as well as large scale raids, especially against light infantry/insurgents. The light-infantry specialization is also combined with the rear battle operations capability. Being a light force, a Paratrooper Brigade is able to conduct operations in rough terrain against mechanized or armoured forces, while open terrains are unfavourable to the Paratroopers; the famed battle of El Alamein is highly regarded by military historians precisely because the exceptional conditions.
The full operational capability of a Paratrooper Brigade depends upon the availability of proper air transport assets for strategic deployment and upon higher commands for supplemental transportation.
A Paratrooper Brigade is organized as it follows:

  • Brigade Command and Tactical Support Battalion
  • Cavalry Squadrons Group
  • 1 Paratroopers Regiment (1 Command and Communications Company and 3 Battalions)
  • Artillery Paratroopers Group
  • Paratroopers Engineer Battalion
  • Manoeuvre Regiment
    • Command Company
    • Health Battalion
    • Maintenance Battalion
    • Supplies Battalion

Mechanized Infantry Brigade Edit

While the Mechanized infantry division is the main military formations for major campaigns to be conducted in plains or rough environment, the autonomous mechanized infantry brigades are more mobile and agile formations, capable to be quickly deployed and to sustain heavy combat operations, both at strategic and operational level. Deployment environments are usually the same of the larger divisions, although they are more versed in asymmetric warfare and low-intensity conflicts.

  • Brigade Command
  • Brigade Command and Support Battalion
  • GNR MP Section
  • Infantry Regiment
    • Regiment Command Company (3 Platoons)
    • 3 Infantry Battalions (Command Company, 4 Infantry Comanies, 1 Mortar Company)
  • Cavalry Squadrons Group (1 Command Squadron and 3 Operational Squadrons)
  • Tank Squadrons Group (1 Command Squadron and 3 Operational Squadrons)
  • Field Artillery Group (1 Command Battery and 3 Operational Batteries)
  • Engineers-Saboteurs Battalion
  • Manoeuvre Regiment
    • Command Company
    • Health Battalion
    • Maintenance Battalion
    • Supplies Battalion

Armoured Division Edit

Armoured Divisions are the Mechanized Infantry twin formations: they are usually assigned missions as destroy enemy armed forces and to control land area including population and resource centres, and they operate within a Corps or a major joint task force. Such units conduct sustained heavy combat operations under all conditions. Being an heavy formation, a typical Armoured division accomplishes movement to conduct contact, attacks, exploitations, and pursuit of enemy forces, being capable to disperse over great distances and concentrate rapidly from widely separate areas. However, Armoured division's heavy equipment can not be lifted by Army aircraft, but have to rely on Air Force, and mobility is heavily restricted by jungle, dense forest, steep, rugged terrain, and major water obstacles.
Operations entrusted to the armoured divisions include offensive, defensive and retrograde operations, as well as acting as a covering force. In addition, such divisions provide organic air defence against low altitude aircraft.
These formations are capable of performing organizational and direct support maintenance of their organic equipment. An Armoured Division includes 5 Tank Squadrons Groups (1 Tank Regiment), 4 Infantry Battalions (1 Infantry Regiment) and 5 Artillery Groups (1 Artillery Regiment).

  • Headquarters Company
  • GNR MP Divisional Section
  • Chemical Company
  • 1 Signal Battalion (1 Command Company, 3 Area Signal Companies, 1 Signal Support Company)
  • 1 EW Battalion (1 Command & Ops Company, 3 EW Companies, 1 EW Support company)
  • 1 Engineer Regiment
    • Command and Support Company
    • 3 Engineer Battalions (3 Engineer Companies each)
  • 1 Divisional Artillery Regiment
    • Command and Support Company
    • 3 Field Artillery Groups (3 Batteries each)
    • 1 MLRS Group (2 MLRS Batteries)
    • 1 Air Defence Group (3 Batteries, 1 missile Battery)
  • Armoured Brigade "A"
    • Command Company
    • 2 Tank Squadrons Groups (1 Command Squadron, 4 Tank Squadrons each)
    • 1 Infantry Battalion (1 Command Company, 4 Infantry Companies)
    • GNR MP Section
  • Armoured Brigade "B"
    • Command Company
    • 2 Tank Squadrons Groups (1 Command Squadron, 4 Tank Squadrons each)
    • 1 Infantry Battalion (1 Command Company, 4 Infantry Companies)
    • GNR MP Section
  • Infantry Brigade
    • Command Company
    • 1 Tank Squadrons Group (1 Command Squadron, 4 Tank Squadrons)
    • 2 Infantry Battalions (1 Command Company, 4 Infantry Companies each)
    • GNR MP Section
  • Air Cavalry Brigade
    • 1 Support Air Cavalry Squadrons Group (1 Command Squadron, 2 Support Squadrons)
    • 2 Attack Air Cavalry Squadrons Groups (3 Attack Squadrons each)
    • 1 Cavalry Squadrons Group (3 Cavalry Squadrons, 2 Air Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadrons)
    • GNR MP Section

RISTA-EW Brigade "Longe Video" Edit

The RISTA-EW Brigade "Longe Video" is the elite formation established within the Arm of Transmissions, tasked with conducting the Army combat intelligence operations. The Brigade RISTA EW is led by a Brigade General. The whole package of RISTA-EW capabilities aims to meet the specialized needs in terms of "military information" to the tactical level, able to contribute also to the needs of operational level. In operations, the Brigade generates specific RISTA EW-based regimental task forces, responsible for providing information support to maneuver formations.
The Brigade includes five subordinate operational units:

  • 201st EW Artillery Group "Giuseppe Solaro";
  • 202nd Psyops Infantry Battalion "Roberto Farinacci";
  • 203rd UAV Air Cavalry Squadron Group "Occaso";
  • 204th Data correlation Infantry Battalion "Minerva Secunda";
  • 205th HUMINT Infantry Battalion "Aius Locutius".

Due to this specific vocational occupation, the "Longe Video" Brigade interacts and cooperates quite frequently with the Special Operations Forces and with the Special Forces, and especially with the FOS-level 185th Reconnaissance and Target Adquisition Regiment. The Brigade is deployed in Lazio and Abruzzo.

205th HUMINT Battalion "Aius Locutius" Edit

The 205th Battalion "Aius Locutius" was founded September 30th, 2010 and is based at Anzio, where are grouped all the electronic warfare units belonging to the Army. The Battalion provides intelligence activities, cover team support, target adquisition.
The unit operates in all foreign missions in which they are engaged and the Italian military is a specialist unit consists of ten officers (of which a responsible officer and one logistics operations and training section), 10 subofficers and 20 enlisted men (of which 5 sergeants involved in research computer science). Among the requirements are requested in particular the knowledge of languages ​​such as Persian, Chinese and Indian languages​​, the attendance of a HUMINT course, even abroad, the advanced ability to use computer tools and, above all, the ability to survive in a hostile environment: personnel usually comes from maneuvering or line units.

Army Territorial Military Command Edit

The Army Territorial Military Command (Comando Militare Territoriale dell'Esercito) is the command that directs the activities related to the recruitment and Propaganda in the country. The Command reports directly to the Chief of Staff of the ENR and it employs Army Military Commands, having under it all Logistics Bases of the National Republican Army. For this sector is divided into Military Command North East (Padua), North (Turin), Centre (Florence) and South (Naples). The Autonomous Commands Sicily (Palermo) and Sardinia (Cagliari) also depend on the Military Command of the Capital.

Military Commands Edit

The Military Commands are the territorial commands of the Army, directing activities related to recruitment and propaganda in the area, as well as constituting the territorial frame for the assumption of powers of civilians by the military authorities (It: Assunzione dei poteri civili da parte delle autorità militari, APAM). They are headed by a Division General. Army Military Commands lead activities related to recruitment and propaganda in the Region assigned, and they are led by a Brigade General. Every Military Command has a Battalion attached to it, while Army Military Commands have a Company: it is to note that in Rome (Military Command of the Capital which exercise nation-wide, Military Command-level and Army Military Command-level functions) a whole Regiment is assigned, while in Cagliari a Battalion belonging to the Rome regiment is detached to the Autonomous Command.

  • Military Command North: HQ Turin
    • Army Military Command Piedmont: HQ Turin
    • Army Military Command Liguria: HQ Genoa
    • Army Military Command Lombardy: HQ Milan
  • Military Command North East: HQ Padua
    • Army Military Command Veneto: HQ Padua
    • Army Military Command Dalmatia: HQ Trieste (detached see: Ragusa)
    • Army Military Command Friuli: HQ Udine
    • Army Military Command Trentino: HQ Trento
  • Military Command Centre: HQ Florence
    • Army Military Command Tuscany: HQ Florence
    • Army Military Command Romagna: HQ Bologna
    • Army Military Command Marche: HQ Ancona
    • Army Military Command Abruzzi: HQ L'Aquila
    • Army Military Command Umbria: HQ Perugia
  • Military Command South: HQ Neaples
    • Army Military Command Campania: HQ Neaples
    • Army Military Command Puglia: HQ Bari
    • Army Military Command Calabria and Lucania: HQ Reggio di Calabria
    • Army Military Command Sicily: HQ Palermo

Military Districts Edit

The Military District is a territorial subdivision headed by a military officer. The Military District is primarily responsible for all matters related to military operations and military service of military personnel born or resident in that part of the territory (usually a Province). They also ensure the matriculation service and accommodation of the force on leave. At present there are 110 Military Districts, distinguished according to their importance in five classes. The Military District Command includes the Military District Commander; a Command Office, which deals with all matters of a general nature; an Office of Recruitment and Mobilization, for carrying out studies and measures related to recruitment, mobilization, to the calls of classes, etc.; a Local Draft Commission; an Administration Office and a local contingent, whether proportionate to the importance and strength of the Military District (from a platoon to a battalion) and having the following main tasks: to provide staff when needed, to provide personnel for the administration and discipline of the recruits and reservists during the time they remain at the command of the Military District.

Logistic Command of the Army Edit

The Army Logistic Command conducts management activities and develops a harmonious activity of command, coordination and control over all configurations logistics of the Armed Forces.
In particular, ensure logistical support of Commands and Units of the Army, being responsible for the care of personnel and logistics for materials and equipment in use and the use of financial resources allocated to the logistics sector.

Higher Commands Edit

The Higher Commands (Italian: Comandi Superiori) are ENR commands which deal with defence issues related to the Autonomous Social Republics. These Commands are held by an Army Corps General, and retain an high degree of autonomy from the Supreme Command: in peacetime they are under operational control of their Higher Commander (Comandante Superiore), which in turn depends on the Duce. For what is related to equipment, training and general policy, they depend on the Supreme Command. However, in wartimes, they depend on only the Army General Staff. It is to note that Autonomous Social Republic Governments have no authority over the relevant Higher Command. As of 2013, three Higher Commands exist:

  • Higher Command Balkans: HQ Tirana (jurisdiction for Albania, Montenegro, Rhodes and Dodecanese);
  • Higher Command Libya: HQ Tripoli (jurisdiction for Libya);
  • Higher Command Italian East Africa: HQ Adis Abeba (jurisdiction for Abyssinia, Eritrea and Somalia).

The Higher Commands exercise command and control authority over two types of troops and military corps: ENR troops deployed within their jurisdictions, formed by Italian citizens, and local troops. The latter ones are staffed with non-Italian citizens of the Empire and are tasked with security and Gendarmerie-like duties. It is to note that the Army Higher Commands have the same territorial jurisdiction of the Navy Higher Commands, in order to support the cooperation and the coordination between them.

Arms and Corps Edit

The Army National Republican lines six Arms and three Corps. The former are the Arms of Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery, Engineers, Transmission, Transportation and Materials. The Corps are the Army Medical Corps, the Corps of Administration and Commissariat of the Army, the Army Corps of Engineers.
In turn, Arms and Corps are composed of "specialities" that match the type of fight that each department is able to support and for which is structured and prepared.

Arm of Infantry Edit

The Arm of Infantry an Arm of is Italian Army that employs fighters on foot, called the infantrymen. The Infantry is the backbone of the Armed Force since the majority of its operating units belong precisely the weapon of infantry. The Arm has its roots in ancient legions of ancient Rome, but the official date of his birth is associated with that of the establishment of the Italian Army (May 4, 1861).
The Arm of Infantry includes within the specialities of:

  • Mechanized Infantry
  • Grenadiers
  • Alpine
  • Paratroopers
  • Lagunari
  • Bersaglieri
  • Arrest Infantry

BersaglieriEdit

The Bersaglieri are an elite Infantry Specialty of the National Republican Army, originally created by General Alessandro La Marmora on 18 June 1836 to serve in the Piedmontese Army, later to become the Royal Italian Army. They have always been a high-mobility light infantry unit, and can still be recognized by the distinctive wide brimmed hat that they wear (only in dress uniform in modern times), decorated with black capercaillie feathers. The feathers are usually applied to their combat helmets. Another distinctive trait of the Bersaglieri is the fast jog pace they keep on parades, instead of marching.
Currently, there are four Bersaglieri Divisions: "Garibaldi", "Cacciatori d'Africa", "Repubblica" and "Mazzini". They are named after pillars of the Republican nature of the State, with the exception of the "Cacciatori d'Africa" ("African Hunters"), which holds and keeps traditions and honours of the Bersaglieri units employed in the African War.

History Edit

The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia could not afford large numbers of cavalry, so a quick-moving infantry corps of marksmen was needed. These troops were trained to high physical and marksmanship standards. A level of independence and initiative was also encouraged. The first public appearance of the Bersaglieri was on 1 July 1836. They marched through Turin with the rapid, high-stepping gait still used by the Bersaglieri even during barracks duty - on penalty of punishment if they do not.
During World War I, the 12 regiments of Bersaglieri fought with distinction. A contingent of Bersaglieri was sent to participate in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in 1917.
After the war, restructuring of the Italian Army reduced the number of Bersaglieri battalions to two per regiment. A new role was seen for the light infantry as part of Italy’s commitment to Mobile Warfare. Elite units with high morale and an aggressive spirit were seen as one way to break such tactical stalemates as the trench warfare of 1915-18.
Italy’s Bersaglieri regiments were expanded from two to three battalions each during the African War. However, the Army resisted any temptation to dilute their quality, and recruits continued to be of above-average size and stamina. They endured intense physical training, as well as having to qualify as marksmen. The Bersaglieri valiantly fought in North Africa.
While in the past the mobility of the Bersaglieri was helped by their training in running and by the aid of bicycles, regiments currently in service are all mechanised. The modern Bersaglieri have served as peacekeepers in Lebanese and Yugoslav Civil War. Bersaglieri traditions are still stressed. The Bersaglieri collar patches are purple-red "flames". Enlisted troops still wear the red fez. Officers wear black berets with their ordinary uniforms, but the feathered "vaira" in ceremonial uniform. They also wear black gloves, while other Army corps wear white ones. Each Bersaglieri unit had a band called a "fanfara", who plays their instruments at the run while on parade. The "fanfara" does not contain percussion instruments.

Paratroopers Edit

The Paratrooper Speciality (Italian: Specialità Paracadutista) is the most famous and proud Infantry speciality of the National Republican. Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. Paratroops units are used for tactical advantage as they can be inserted into the battlefield from the air, thereby allowing them to be positioned in areas not accessible by land. The duties of the paratroopers Brigades are those of the "Early Entry" (first unit to be placed in an operating theatre) and the reserve of the Army Corps, where there is the use of the same Parachute Brigade as a normal infantry formation. In this second use, the Paratrooper Cavalry Regiment provides the heavy impact force.
Paratroopers are surrounded by a great hype. It is known, at least among common folks, that paratroopers are almost supermen because they have the courage to jump out of an air-plane. Propaganda and most paratroopers strongly encourage this consideration. Paratroopers Brigades consist of nine Battalions each, numbered according a common pattern: the 1st Brigade has 181st to 189th Battalion, the 2nd Brigade from 281st to 289th, and so on.

Folgore Brigade Edit

The Folgore Brigade is the oldest and principal paratroopers brigade of the National Republican Army. It was established as the Folgore Division in 1930s, and in 1970s it was downsized in order to generate the other Paratroopers Brigades and to fulfil at its best its special tasks. The popular imaginary holds near to the hearth the Folgore's res gestae, and the Folgore fame has passed also to the other paratroopers formations. The Brigade has nine Battalions, from 181st to 189th:

  • 186th Battalion "El Alamein": Among the Paratrooper Infantry Battalions, the 186th Battalion has a very special status: as for other Battalions, it descends from the same-number Regiment, which fought in El Alamein. Since then it has been the most renown conventional unit of the ENR. It consists of three Companies: XIII Compagnia Paracadutisti Condor, XIV Compagnia Paracadutisti Pantere Indomite (the XIV Company has the best soldiers of the Army's conventional forces), XV Compagnia Paracadutisti Diavoli Neri and Compagnia Mortai Pesanti.
  • 187th Battalion "Tarquinia": it descends from the II Battalion "Tarquinia".

Alpini Edit

The Alpini (English: Alpine troops), are an elite mountain warfare military corps of the Italian National Republican Army. They are currently organized in five operational Divisions, which are subordinated to the 5th Alpine Troops Army Corps. Established in 1872, their original mission is to protect Italy's northern mountain border with France and Austria. They emerged during World War I as they fought a three-year campaign on the Alps against Austro-Hungarian Kaiserjäger and the German Alpenkorps. In 1888 the Alpini deployed on their first mission abroad, in Africa; nowadays, at least one Brigade is permanently deployed in Italian East Africa and several exercises are held on Libyan mountains.
Alpini collar patches are green two-points flames; when the Alpini personnel belong to a non-infantry speciality the green is the background to their speciality rectangular patch. Alpini formations bear the same name since their establishment and are deployed and garrisoned through the Alps range, with the exception of the 4th Alpine Paratrooper Rangers Regiment "Monte Cervino" which is stationed in Gran Sasso mountain.

Uniforms and insignia Edit

File:Stelletta militare italiana.png

The Italian Armed Forces, and therefore the Army, have complete sets of rank insignia, military badges and military uniforms, in order to display the unity of action of every member and body; this improves the esprit de corps, and contributes to the identity formations of both the collective body. The distinctive badge common to all State armed units (i.e. Army, Navy, Air Force and Police Corps) is made up of the military five-points stars, in opposition to Roman Gladius and the laurel wreath of the Party armed units.

ENR Special Ranks insignia
Special rank Capo di Stato Maggiore di Forza Armata Capo di Stato Maggiore dela Difesa
English translation Chief of Service Staff Chief of Defence Staff
Corresponding Army rank (Italian) Generale di Corpo d'Armata con Incarichi Speciali Generale d'Armata
Corresponding Army rank (English) Lieutenant General General
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ENR officers ranks and insignia
Army rank Sottotenente Tenente Capitano Maggiore Tenente Colonnello Colonnello Generale di Brigata Generale di Divisione Generale di Corpo d'Armata
English translation Under-Lieutenant Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Brigade General Division General Corps General
Corresponding Army rank (English) Second Lieutenant Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Brigadier Major General Lieutenant General
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ENR Subofficers ranks and insignia
Army rank Maresciallo Maresciallo Capo Maresciallo Maggiore
English translation Marshal Chief Marhal Marshal Major
Corresponding Army rank (English) Warrant Officer Class Two Warrant Officer Second Class Warrant Officer First Class
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ENR Enlisted ranks and insignia
Army rank Soldato Caporale Caporale maggiore Caporale Capo Sergente Sergente Maggiore
English translation Soldier Corporal Corporal Major Chief Corporal Sergeant Sergeant Major
Corresponding Army rank (English) Private Lance Corporal Corporal Sergeant Staff Sergeant Staff Sergeant

(senior echelon)

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Related voices Edit

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