The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) is the founding and ruling political party of the Italian Social Republic. The PNF is the only permitted party in Italy, maintaining a unitary government and centralizing the state, military, and media. While economic interests are collected into the Corporatist State, both spiritual and political tendencies are collected into, and expressed by, the National Fascist Party and its subordinate bodies, which are in turn represented into the Grand Council of Fascism. The legal power of the PNF is guaranteed by the national constitution. The party leader is the Duce of the Republic, who holds also the title of Duce of the Fascism. The current Secretary is Marco Tarchi.
The party was founded in March 1919 in Milano. After a brief squadrist phase, the PNF seized the power. The party has fluctuated between periods of reformism and political conservatism throughout its history. Both before and after the founding of the Italian Social Republic, the PNF's history is defined by various power struggles and ideological battles. The vast majority of military and civil officials are members of the Party.
The National Fascist Party is a voluntary militia under the command of the Duce, in the service of the Fascist State. The Duce is the Head of P.N.F. Gives orders for the action to be performed. The tasks of P.N.F. are: the preservation and enhancement of the Fascist Revolution, the political education of the Italians. The Fascist comprises life as duty, elevation, conquest and must always keep in mind the commandment of the Duce: "Believing Obeying Fighting".
The P.N.F. is made up of Fasci di Combattimento: the Fasces are grouped into provincial Fighting Fasces Federations. Within the Fasci di Combattimento level, Fascist Borough Groups, Sectors and Sections can be constituted.
In their daily activities PNF activists at the neighbourhood or workplace level often choose to ignore obstinate characters, who are not important or numerous enough to be reproved. The most provocative and rebellious cases do face retribution. Keeping the Party’s approval is a prerequisite for navigating administrative channels, and the party ultimately has the power to excommunicate people, leaving them ineligible for bank accounts or homes.
As for other single-parties, the PNF is based on guidance principle: the leader leads the party, the party leads its members, its members lead society.
The official ideology of the PNF is "Fascism", which in turn is made up by several tenets and components. It is to note that the official content of the Fascist ideology varied and varies according to the particular orientation of the actual ruler. Fascism has been identified in national socialism, in social nationalism, in pure nationalism, or even in non-national corporativism in different moments.
However, even in the most heterodox interpretations, some core tenets have always been included.
Nationalism is the main foundation of Fascism. The Fascist view of a nation is of a single organic entity which binds people together by their ancestry and is a natural unifying force of people: therefore, Fascism has the duty to solve economic, political, and social problems by achieving a national rebirth and promoting cults of unity, strength and purity. The central notion of "Nation", however, could vary greatly, from a "blood-and-soil" vision to a vision marked by the concept of "political-and-spiritual community". Fascism is a national instinct, is a national sentiment, is the national will. Tracing this instinct back to the principles and to ideology means nothing else than going back to the national action and to national doctrine, doing nationalism. Fascism adopts the nationalist conception of the Society, considered as a living body that embodies the indefinite series of generations, and which individuals are infinitesimal and transient elements, as opposed to the liberal-democratic-socialist conception, which considers society as sum of living individuals.
Italy, according to the principle of the Italianism, is the heart of the Mediterranean Idea, which is expressed in the way Italians relate with work and with other people. Italy in the production rejects the repetitive pattern, standardized and de-personalized, and everyone is invited to get involved, helping to improve even partially. The nature of Italian social relations is contrary to the mathematical and sterile behaviour; the Italian model is based on the intimate understanding of the processes (both social and business) and even irrational contribution by everyone. The realization is more aware and more subject to free choice, which can lead to a problem in the general organization.
The Italian model is human, creative, even irrational, especially universal, and is opposed to the conformist, de-personalized, conformist, zealous and rational model which is deeply rooted in Northern Europe.
Fascism is not an economic movement, being (or claiming to be) a political movement directed toward the Spirit: its main intent and purpose is to elevate the Community members' and community's spirits. Therefore Fascism deplores bourgeois culture for having an unfit sedentary lifestyle and for its individualism that fascism views as inconsistent with virile nationhood, personified by warrior and, above all, assault spirit. This attention to warrior spirit is justified with the necessity of hardihood in order to elevate the Spirit. As noted before, the PNF is a spiritualist organization, and promotes Italian spiritual values. The PNF does not prohibit nor mandates party members from belonging to a religion.
Consequently with nation-centralism, cultural nationalization of society emancipates the nation's proletariat, even more than the nation as a whole, and promotes the assimilation of all classes into a sort of warrior-and-labour nationalistic culture.
All Fascist factions and interpretations criticise egalitarianism as preserving the weak, while they instead promote social and national empowerments.
Fascism emphasizes direct action, as a core element, in so far as Fascism views violent action not only as a necessity in politics (that fascism identifies as being an "endless struggle" which is to be destroyed), but also because the action is the medium through which the Spirit could elevate itself.
Fascism emphasizes youth both in a physical sense of age and in a spiritual sense as related to virility and commitment to action. Fascism identifies the physical age period of youth as a critical time for the moral development of people that will affect society.
Emotions and feelings Edit
The simple love of the risk, or the search of the emotion and adrenaline as end in themselves, is rejected. Emotions must be considered as a means, as part of a tool that allows us to learn more about themselves: it is on these occasions, in fact, that everyone gets involved in the search for a discipline of the nerves and of the body, a shiny and conscious boldness, a spirit of conquest, an ability to understand and overcome their weaknesses, in order to find the right concentration and polished to proceed.
Fight against globalism Edit
The Fascism considers itself as being part of the universal fight against globalism. The globalism is considered the mocking of universality and the anti-traditional counterfeit of universal ideals that have uniformly permeated constructions political and historical events and that have inspired the traditional civilizations. The universality is seen as a system of ontological hierarchies which configure a pyramidal ascending order along a cosmic vertical axis, while the mondialism, on the contrary , is seen as the materialization and decomposition of the universality.
The globalism is considered as a process whose distinctive feature is the degradation of humanity to an undifferentiated mush. The final aim of globalism is the number of individuals robot repeating the same type and characterized by outrageously bestial features, who fulfil only roles of miser, dealer and consumer of material goods.
The globalist man is the man inwardly empty and filled by false induced needs aimed to the conservation and enhancement of the international capitalist system. Reduced the value at material interest, the individual becomes a slave to wealth and, consequently, of those who create it, control it and use it. This tactical goal is pursued by globalist oligarchy according to a strategy of global domination.
Third Position Edit
Fascism promotes such economics as a "third position" alternative to capitalism and Marxism. Such an economic system, is variously shaped as "national corporatism", "national socialism" or "national syndicalism": Fascism is against both capitalist slavery and Marxist chaos: the Third Position is closely linked to Nationalism, in so far as Fascism advocates resolution to domestic class struggle to secure national solidarity.
The so-called "Red Fascism" (or "Left-winged Fascism") favours proletarian culture and claims that proletarians as producers must have a dominant role in the nation. While fascism opposes domestic class struggle, fascism believes that bourgeois-proletarian conflict primarily exists in national conflict between proletarian nations versus bourgeois nations.
Fascism denounces capitalism not because of its competitive nature nor its support of private property; but due to its materialism, individualism, alleged bourgeois decadence, and alleged indifference to the nation. On the other hand, Fascism denounces Marxism for its advocacy of materialist and internationalist identity that is an attack upon the spiritual bonds of nationality and thwarting the achievement of genuine national solidarity. The social achievement pursued by Fascism is the creation of a nation composed of strong-and-free soldier-worker nationals, who participate to both political and economic national life.
The trio consisting of productivism, monopolism, protectionism is seen as the antithesis to the principles of free trade and free competition; the same way, the corporative system is adopted as a denial of union rights and as an antidote to social conflicts.
Political organicism Edit
The organic democracy is a political organization, pursued by fascism to remedy the political parties abuses inherent in liberal democracy. The organic democracy relies on two principles: subsidiarity and communitarianism. On the one hand the well-being of the community as a whole has priority over the needs of individuals; On the other hand, in this system, decisions should be taken directly from the segment of the community interested in: family, condo, district, town, etc., and from organizations such as corporations producing entities and economic union. These collective entities and community are considered as the best: these groups are based on the primary social relations.
The organic "democracy" advocates a form of government that is based on the rule of the most qualified, rather than rule by a majority of numbers. This form of government is based also on a spiritual connection between a leader of Italy and the Italian people; therefore, true freedom does not arise from individual rights, but through heroic leadership and national power. The economic Corporatism becomes therefore one of the several facets of the organicism. The organicism is meaningless without a strong authority, which is capable to link a firm rule with the nation's will. The fascist republic is definitively not a democratic republic characterized by universal suffrage, but an aristocratic republic ruled by elites nationally aware. Therefore, the fascist is not the antithesis of the principle of authority represented by the monarchy, but the antithesis of demagogic disorder.
Fascism promotes the establishment of a "total State". The Fascist conception of the State is all-embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist, much less have value. Fascism is "total", and the Fascist State is a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values. The Fascist State, therefore, interprets, develops, potentiating the whole life of a people. Being an attempt to achieve the spiritual unity, the Fascist State has the right/duty to pursue policies of social indoctrination through propaganda in education and the media and regulation of the production of educational and media materials, because education is designed in order to glorify the fascist movement and inform students of its historical and political importance to the nation.
Most "ethnic-centred" interpretations, however, see the State as a stronghold which guarantees a political unity for the nation's sake. The "socialist nationalism" justifies the necessity of achieve a complete media control with the necessity to avoid a dangerous pluralism.
The Bella Figura and Fascism Edit
A crucial knot of the Italian weltanschauung is the "Bella Figura", which can be very roughly translated as "Pretty Figure" or "Beatiful Figure". In Italy, the philosophy of Bella Figura rules the land, especially in the South. Bella Figura roughly means "beautiful figure" but is actually a way of life emphasizing beauty, good image, aesthetics and, mainly, proper behaviour.
Italy is a place of grandeur and elegance. In addition to being well dressed and well groomed, Italians surround themselves with beauty in every facet of their lives: the search for beauty - even in the most utilitarian things - is an aim for its own, and it is considered as a vehicle toward the infinite and the Divine. However, the Bella Figura is far more than merely dressing well, looking good and admiring fine art. It is an etiquette system, as well as something more than a mundane etiquette. The Bella Figura also means acting properly, knowing the rules of etiquette, presenting oneself with, and being aware of, the proper nuances Italian society demands. It is how to act and how to behave under particular circumstances.
Therefore, the Bella Figura is also a strong loyalty concept and ideal. Italians have a strong sense of loyalty to their family, friends, neighbours, fellow citizens, compatriots, fellow nationals and even to their business partners. Behaving properly, appropriately and respectfully is crucial to maintaining the right air of Bella Figura both in family situations as well as in the external world. The Bella Figura is both a demureness and formality and is thoroughly entrenched in the culture of Italy, especially in the southern portion of the country. It is believed that practising the Bella Figura enhances beauty and peace in their world.
If someone acts according to the Bella Figura demands, he (or she) acts according a tight honour system. By treacherous behaviour, someone performs a "Cattiva Figura", the opposite concept, and it is more than shame: it is shame and the demonstration of immaturity of a person. According to the honourable requirements of the Bella Figura, Italians tend to estimate the "Bel Gesto" or "Beatiful Action"; if someone is in a desperate situation, or may achieve a result throught a less than honourable act, the Bel Gesto is a selfless but honoured action.
The Fascism has very close similarities with the Bella Figura, rising from the same social context: on one hand, the loyalty according the Bella Figura rises from the legionary spirit; on the other hand, the tension toward beauty is, according both Bella Figura and Fascism, a tension toward Spirit and Divine.
Nowadays, far from the Mussolini's leadership, the PNF is split and divided into several factions and even Duce Debalti is uncapable or unwilling to crack them down. Some of them track back their origins and roots to the earliest components of Fascism, while other factions were born in following decades. Almost all Fascist groups favour the Republic, and no relevant faction is openly Monarchist. Real and current issues such as economic, foreign, military and defence policies, as well as ethic issues and some philosophical views take the centre of the debate.
More ideological and philosophical questions are also debated, being the PNF an order of fighters and of believers, but the main discussion arenas are the cultural institutions rather than the Grand Council of Fascism or the Party's newspapers or other authorized media.
According to their position compared to the official line expressed by the Duce, factions and areas could be classified as being right-wing factions, if they are more liberal-conservative and pro-capitalism than the Duce and the official line, "centrist factions", if their position are more or less the same, or as being left-wing areas and factions, if their issues are more socially progressive and if they are more in favour of progressive and materialistic ideologies.
Currently, the centre is occupied by Corporativist factions, which detain a large popularity, embodying the core of the Fascist values and enjoying the Duce's support.
The individual currents are named after the Fascio di Combattimento which they arose in or they come from, or after the newspaper or the politician which they refer to. All factions claim of respecting the Doctrine of Fascism and of recognizing it as their own.
Right-wing factions: they are liberal-conservative, pro-US and in favour of liberal Europeans.
- National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale): Liberal Nationalists. Main leaders are Maurizio Gasparri and Ignazio La Russa, both members of the Political Directory. It is quite spread in northern provinces MVSN.
- Tradition and Distinction (Tradizione e Distinzione): Traditionalists environmentalists, followers of Julius Evola. It is an isolationist faction, focused on environmentalism, monarchism, in favour of laissez-faire and very ethically conservative. It is not "enthusiastic" in supporting the Duce and RSI. Major figureheads are Adriano Romualdi (son of Pino Romualdi, former high-ranking party official and former faction leader) and Marzio Tremaglia. The main intellectual is doubtless Franco "Giorgio" Freda. This faction is widespread among most part of cultural institutions, but is little known out of academies and think tanks. Despite its little size, this faction is highly respected, having one Political Directory member, Marzio Tremaglia. It is to note that Evolian philosphy is spread within majority of the factions: however, the "integral evolians" are a distinct faction.
- Catholic Alliance (Alleanza Cattolica): Catholic Nationalists. It is led by Antonio Mantovano, chief-editor of the eponymus newspaper, "The Catholic Alliance" ("L'Alleanza Cattolica"). It is not represented into the Political Directory.
The centrist factions include corporativist, ethically conservative, isolationist, pro-Ba'th, hostile to the U.S. and anti-communist factions. The centre is often considered as being the most authentic interpreters of Fascism.
- Young Europe (Giovane Europa): is a "centrist" faction, corporativist, nationalist-European and national-revolutionary. It is ethically moderate and anti-U.S. They are widespread in the youth organizations, but they have very little diffusion within the adulthood, despite the fact the faction is 40 years old. Currently the leader is Gianni Alemanno, Governor of Rome and member of the Political Directory.
- Fascists' Nationalist Socialist Platform of Italy (Piattaforma Nazionale e Socialista d'Italia dei Fascisti): The Platform consists of Italian national-socialists who are nostalgic for the Hitler's National Socialism, they are pagan and corporativist.
- The Corporativists (I Corporativisti): they are the "big centre". "The Corporativists" faction is the most consistent and widespread; ethically moderate, they are in favour of an active and prominent State role in the economy, they want to move towards enterprises co-management, they want more powers to the Chamber of Fasces and Corporations. The vast majority follows the teachings of Giovanni Gentile and his heirs, but many are also in favor of Ugo Spirito and its wave. In turn, "orthodox" Corporativists are divided into several associations, movements and newspapers. Due to their vastity, they have 13 members of Political Directory, gaining the absolute majority. However, differences between various Corporativist sub-factions are large enough to make them to approach some problems differently. Among the most prominent leaders there are now Giulio Tremonti, Maurizio Sacconi and Renato Brunetta.
- Lictor and Catholic Italy (Italia Littoria e Cattolica): they are catholic fascists, ethically very conservative, and in favour of a progressive decentralization and of the social market economy. The main leader is their Political Directory member, Roberto Fiore, who is also the founder of the "Forza Nuova" magazine.
Leftist factions are somewhat ethically progressive, while for what regards economic proposals they range from a simple "social-democratic" approach, to a co-operative solution, passing through the Proprietary Corporation (or the socialization of the economy) and the brutal "collectivist" option. The leftist fascists are often called "Fascisti-Rossi" (red fascists) and many among them are strongly favourable to an "encounter" between Fascism and marxism. Individual leftist factions are not represented in their own capacity into the Political Directory: however, the eight Political Directory members who are not part of the right-wing or centrist factions are colletively tasked with representing major instances coming from the Fascist left. Among the most important movements which are classified as part of the Fascist Left, there is the Social Republican Group (Raggruppamento Sociale Repubblicano, RSR) which, with its Autonomous Republican Groups (Gruppi Autonomi Repubblicani) has the widest peripheral network of the leftist factions. The founder of the RSR was Giorgio Pini, while the most known member was Concetto Pettinato; nowadays, the uncontested leader is Salvatore Vivirito, who is also a member of the Political Directory.
The party network is powered by its membership. Members are classified according to the depth of their commitment. A person can join as a sympathiser ("Simpatizzante"), required only to assimilate the ideological lessons at weekly meetings. The more senior supporters ("Aderente") and "advanced supporters" ("Militante") are symbolically willing to take up arms to defend the party. The system requires passing successfully a series of tests, so full members are the quite hardened and committed supporters. As they make their way up through the ranks, activists gain privileges and authority. Membership of the PNF is a prerequisite, formal and informal, for many jobs, especially in the public sector: in particular, all military personnel, as well as all Public Security civilian officials and Prefects have to be at least senior supporters ("Aderenti"). On the other hand, leaving the PNF and joining a different, illegal political party is punished with up to five years in prison.
Party membership also confers other tiny powers: intimidating your neighbours, teachers, colleagues, and even your superiors if they happen to rank lower in the parallel party hierarchy (although this circumstance is not present within the public administration). As happens everywhere in the world, vulnerable, complex people often join the party for the self-assurance membership brings.
Only advanced supporters are eligible for higher levels, such as composing the consultive committees or even become part of the Hierarchy.
One of the major goals of the Party is constant recruitment. New blood coming in allows the Party to renew itself. Members are expected to be loyal to the Party, and in ensuring this the Party collects a great deal of information on its members. The questionnaire for new members is quite extensive, and requires the applicant to describe his or her personal interests and background, the nature of their introduction to the PNF and its ideology, amongst other questions.
All Party members are subject to particular rules and discipline: for example, members are also chided for being late to important meetings or not bringing their notebooks, and, because the PNF regards itself as a "civil militia", they are expected to remain physically fit, with those failing minimal medical exams facing demotion.
The Party puts a great effort into indoctrinating its members. All Fascists are to attend training courses that last months, while political work carried out in daily life is considered to be a form of self-education. Senior members are sent on courses geared to make them effective party figures, while candidates for Hierarchy appointments are there to absorb the Party’s ethos and procedures as well as receive ideological indoctrination. Members are also instructed in the Party’s ‘official line’ and this instructions includes an extensive study of Benito Mussolini’s speeches and writings and PNF congresses. The Party also acts as a channel of indoctrination of the populace at large. For instance, copies of Fascist, revolutionary-conservative, national-socialist or anyhow pleased books are issued to members via territorial structures on release, and they are the frequently the subject at monthly discussions of cultural topics.
Rewards are doled out to members of the PNF for a variety of reasons, such as uninterrupted membership over twenty-five years, service in the military or one of the MVSN branches, or other demonstrations of loyalty, usually in the form of a medal or badge. The most prestigious and most valuable of these rewards is a card that identifies the holder as a “Personal Friend of Italo Debalti” which entitles the holder to personal meetings with the Duce and other officials, and a priority for themselves, their spouse and their children in entrance to universities and military academies. The card is reserved for very special Party members, as well as for close Duce's comrades.
The primary organs of power in the Fascist Party which is detailed in the party constitution include:
- The Political Secretary, which is the second highest-ranking official within the Party after the Duce and is ranked as a State Minister.
- The Secretariat, the principal administrative mechanism of the PNF, headed by the Political Secretary;
- Grand Council of Fascism , which includes:
- The Political Directory, presently consisting of 25 full members (including the members of the Directory Standing Committee)
- The Directory Standing Committee, which consists of nine members
- The Discipline Inspection Commission, which is on the same level with the Political Directory, charged with rooting out corruption and malfeasance among party cadres.
- The MVSN General Command;
- The Political Directory, presently consisting of 25 full members (including the members of the Directory Standing Committee)
The Secretariat’s bureaus serve as quasi-ministries, mainly responsible for labour and cultural affairs. They also oversee a sort of parallel diplomatic corps, together with vast social groups. A special Party membership is a prerequisite for military personnel; while the military is heavily politically characterized, it is not divided into Party bodies, at least the active-duty services and organizations, while discharged unions are full Party bodies. The Party’s security services guarantee loyalty and orthodoxy also within the party.
Grand Council of Fascism Edit
The Grand Council of Fascism (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo) is the highest collective authority within the National Fascist Party, as well as part of the national legislature. Its 300 members are selected once every five years by the Duce of the Republic, among the holders of certain offices.
As Party body, the Grand Council proposes to the Duce many of the most powerful people, including the Political Secretary and the members of the Political Directory, Standing Committee, and National Republican Guard General Command. It is to note that the current Grand Council of Fascism is completely different from the original body with the same name: the latter, infact, was disbanded immediately after the Mussolini's death, fearing that the Triumvirate would be excessively controlled and weak. The current Grand Council was re-established by the current Duce of the Republic, as part of his constitutional reforms.
The Grand Council deliberates about the list of Councilors of the Chamber of Fasces and Corporations, about the statutes, laws and policies of the National Fascist Party, about the appointment and removal of the Secretary, the Vice Secretaries, the Administrative Secretary and members of the Political Directory of the National Fascist Party.
The Secretariat of the Grand Council is the working body of the Political Directory and its Standing Committee. Members of the Secretariat are appointed by the Standing Committee and are subject to endorsement by the whole Grand Council. They include the Propaganda Department, the Organization Department, among others.
The Grand Council of Fascism also exercise its authority as the upper house of the national legislature, and is an important body in that it contains the leading figures of the Party, Party's militia, State, and Armed Forces. Full meetings of the Grand Council rarely are arenas in which there are real debates and decisions on party policy. The Grand Council is larger and has a more diverse ideological spectrum than the Political Directory. The Grand Council also advises the government on ordinary politics. It must be heard on all matters of a constitutional nature, among which are included the composition and functioning of the two Houses of Parliament, the powers and prerogatives of the head of government, corporate and union sorting.
It is to note that, in its capacity of a branch of national legislature, the Grand Council is the body with more political connotations than the Chamber of the Fasces and Corporations, which is composed of "economic" and "social" representatives.
The Grand Coincil of Fascism consists of 300 Councilors (Consiglieri) appointed among Party hierarchy, partly appointed by law and by being appointed to the other offics, partly appointed in their personal capacity. The Political Secretary is, by law, both member and President of the Grand Council of Fascism; also the 110 Federal Secretaries are members by law. The Commandant General, the Deputy Commandant General and the Chief of Staff of National Republican Guard, along with the Commandants of Autonomous Republican Guards, are members of the Grand Council by law; the Deputy Chiefs of Staff could be eligible to the membership.
Members by law are:
- The Political Secretary;
- The Adminastrive Secretary;
- The two Political Vice-Secretaries;
- The Political Secretaries of "colonial" Fascist Parties;
- Members of the Political Directory;
- The 110 Federal Secretaries;
- The President of Association of Fascist Heroes and Victims (Associazione degli Eroi e dei Caduti Fascisti);
- Presidents of: National Institute of Fascist Culture (Istituto Nazionale di Cultura Fascista); National Recreational Club (Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro); Italian National Olympic Committee (Comitato Olimpico Nazionale Italiano); Combatants National Association (Associazione Nazionale Combattenti); National Association of maimed and disabled soldiers (Associazione nazionale mutilati e invalidi di guerra);
- The Commandant General, the Deputy Commandant General and the Chief of Staff of National Republican Guard, along with the Commandants of Autonomous Republican Guards;
- The Chief of General Staff.
Members eligible for appointment are:
- The Governor of Rome;
- The Government Ministers;
- The Chiefs of Staff of each individual Armed Force;
- The Deputy Secretaries of "colonial" Fascist Parties;
- The Deputy Commandants of of Autonomous Republican Guards;
- The Deputy Federal Secretaries;
- Presidents of the Italian Youth of the Lictor (G.I.L.), the National Agency for Maternity and Children (Opera Nazionale Maternità e Infanzia), the Accademia d’Italia, the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, and others
- The GNR Officers awarded with high decorations;
- The MVSN Officers awarded with high decorations;
- The PNF Officials awarded with high decorations;
- The military general or flag officers;
- The MVSN general officers.
Office of General Affairs Edit
The Office of General Affairs (Italian: Ufficio Affari Generali) is an office directly under the Grand Council in charge of technical and logistic affairs. The Office of General Affairs is generally in charge of daily affairs of the Grand Council and the Political Directory, though its functions may change basing on circumstances. Although its business is often non-political, its chiefs have close connections with the Party's top leaders.
Political and Legal Affairs Commission Edit
The National Political and Legal Affairs Commission (Italian: Commissione Nazionale Affari Politico-Legali) of the National Fascist Party is the central organization formally under the party's Grand Council responsible for political and legal affairs: the organization studies and oversees all legal enforcement authorities, including the Public Security and the Prosecution, making it a very powerful organ. Within its stated duties, the Commission also aims to combat terrorism, separatism, and religious extremism. The Commission, in addition to its surveillance powers, also holds semi-compulsory "study sessions" to politically indoctrinate and inform officers on party policies. At last, the Commissions (both national and provincial ones) are charged with balancing the interests of the police, courts and prosecutors, ensuring the rule of law (at least until it does not obstacle the Fascist Revolution).
Within the Political and Legal Affairs Commission there is also a dedicated office, whose specific purpose is to coordinate and direct the political persecution of the Jehovah's Witnesses, codenamed U-7 (from the initial letter of "Geova"). The U-7 is a security agency, although it relies on OVRA. The U- frequently directs other state and party organs in the anti-Jehovah campaign. In order to do this, it is frequently headed by an high-ranking Party official.
All the Party Federations establish respective politics and law commissions, which are mandated to watch over local security forces, including the Questure and, to a lesser degree, over the local Prosecutions; the provincial commissions also organize the provincial study sessions. However, political-legal committee heads do not double nor act as police chiefs and have no direct authority over the Prefect. In large municipalities, there may exist a Party's Municipal Political-Legal Commission, with responsibilities over the Municipal Police Corps.
Peripheral commissions' other main responsibilities are to implement the guidelines assigned by the Government on the work of public security, the building of cadre teams, the comprehensive control of the work of maintaining social stability. The Commissions also have to supervise and coordinate the administrative departments to implement guidelines and policies of the Fascist Party, especially in law enforcement.
The national-level Commission at its top consists of ten Commissioners and it is headed by a Secretary, appointed by the Duce of the Fascism on Political Secretary's proposal, after hearing the Political Directory. The Commission Secretary, who is usually a Political Directory member, due to the great sensitivity of the position, almost always belongs to the dominant faction and tends to be a man coming from the Party apparatus, rather than an officer coming from the MVSN, although it is not a mandatory rule. The current Secretary is GNR Lieutenant General Renato Saltamartini, who is not a member of the Political Directory.
Political Directory Edit
The Political Directory is a group of 25 people who oversee the National Fascist Party activities. The Political Directory is appointed by the Duce. The agenda for the meetings is controlled by the Political Secretary and decisions are made by consensus within its internal factions, rather than by majority vote. Factions are named after their main Fascio di Combattimento (often the one in which they arose) or the newspaper or the politician to which they refer to. As factions within the National Fascist Party, all factions agree to abide by the Doctrine of Fascism and, at least in words, recognize it as their own.
Political Secretary Edit
The Political Secretary of the National Fascist Party is the second highest ranking official within the National Fascist Party, a standing member of the Political Directory and head of the Secretariat. The Party Secretariat is among the most important power centres, with policies handed down through a strictly defined hierarchy and information flowing upwards. This results in an extensive bureaucracy that moves at what was frequently a glacial pace, as decisions moved through and up all tiers and offices in the system. However, this did not prevent the developing or the consolidation of rival power centres, such as the Catholic Church or some economic concentrations.
Inspectorate of the National Fascist Party Edit
The Inspectorate of the National Fascist Party is an organization run under the National Fascist Pary charged with rooting out corruption and malfeasance among party cadres. Its current Secretary is Marco Derenelli, who is also a member of the Political Directory.
Investigations and prosecutions of cadres who are suspect of corruption are conducted confidentially in a system which is separate from ordinary law enforcement and courts, which may be subject to influence by local cadre. Suspects are subjected to severe pressure. There is little sympathy by the public for corrupt officials who get caught up in the system.
Secretary of the Inspectorate Edit
Secretary of the Inspectorate is the head of the Inspectorate of the National Fascist Party. The Secretary is a very important political position, serving as one of the top leaders of the National Fascist Party.
National Institute of Fascist Culture Edit
The National Institute of Fascist Culture (Istituto Nazionale di Cultura Fascista) is an entity created in 1925 and is responsible for the spread and development of fascist ideals and culture. The Institute exists as a development structure and stimulation of intellectual energies of the nation, reaping the greatest intellectuals and members of the Italian artistic and cultural programs, by promoting cooperation between them and pushing them to the practical application of their knowledge.
Its official purpose is to promote and coordinate studies on fascism, conserve and disseminate, in Italy and abroad, the ideals, the doctrine of fascism and the culture of Fascist Italy, through courses and lectures, publications, books and to promote the propaganda in this regard. The Institute collaborates with the Ministry of National Education (Ministero dell'Educazione Nazionale) and the Ministry of Popular Culture (Ministero della Cultura Popolare).
The Institute is governed by a board composed of:
- President, appointed by the Duce, after proposal of the Secretary of PNF;
- 4 Deputy Presidents, appointed by the Duce, after proposal of the Secretary of PNF;
- 14 Councillors, appointed by the Secretary of PNF, after proposal of the President.
Territorial organization Edit
The PNF is organised through a structure adhering to social reality in a rigid hierarchy. The National Fascist Party is made up of Fighting Fasces, which are framed in Fasces of Combat Federations in the provinces and the Governments of the Empire. At the head of each Fasces of Combat Federations is a Federal Secretary.
Federal Secretary Edit
The Federal Secretary is appointed directly by the Duce on the proposal of Political Secretary. He:
- Implements the directives and executes the orders of the Political Secretary;
- Promotes and monitors the activities of the Fasces of Combat and Associations dependent on Party;
- Controls the organizations of the regime and the partecipation of the Fascists to the charges and positions within the province.
The Federal Secretary also maintains connections with the peripheral organs of the State and the Prefect. In relation to the Regime, he is the Federal Commander of the G.I.L., the President of the Provincial National Recreational Club and of Provincial Radio Agency's Committee. The Federal Secretary is part of the Executive Committee of the Provincial Council of Corporations and of the Committee of the University Agency (Opera Universitaria) in cities where there are universities.
The Secretary convenes and chairs the Federal Directory, calls the reports of the Fascists in the province and members of Associations dependent on the PNF in the province. The Secretary directs and is the responsible the political education for the youth.
The Federal Secretary proposes to the Political Secretary the appointment and dismissal of members of the Federal Directory, including the appointment of Deputy Federal Secretary and Deputy Federal Administrative Secretary. The Secretary also proposes the appointment of provincial hierarchy.
He appoints and dismisses the Federal Inspectors, Secretaries of the Fasces of Combat and components of their Directories. Appoints the Trustees of Fascist Borough Groups and the components of its Consultative Committees, Heads of Sector and Chiefs of Squads. The Secretary has the power to dissolve the Directories and the Consultative Committees and to appoint regent commissioners. He also promotes and regulates the sport of organizations in relation to the directives marked by CONI.
The Secretary is the P.N.F. in the province in all respects and the leaders of the provincial associations and organizations that depend on the Party are therefore subordinate to him.
Federal Directory Edit
In each Federation is made up of the Federal Directory, which has advisory and executive functions about regulations of the Federal Secretary. In each Province the Provincial Federation Directory is the supreme authority, alongside the traditional civil service. Its components are:
- The Deputy Federal Secretary;
- The Deputy Federal Administrative Secretary;
- The Secretary of the Fascist University Group (Gruppo Universitario Fascista);
- The Deputy Federal Commander of the G.I.L. for Young Fascists (Giovani Fascisti);
- The Deputy Federal Commander of the G.I.L. for Avanguardisti and Balilla.
Fasces of Combat Edit
The Fascio of Combat (Fascio di Combattimento) is the most basic Fascist organization. It is organized at the municipal level, and it is the elementary unit of the National Fascist Party, upper echelons being mere groupings of Combat Fasces. The Fascio of Combattimento is governed by the Political Secretary of Fascio (Segretario Politico di Fascio di Combattimento), assisted by a Directory. Similarly to the Federal Secretary, he is appointed by the Political Secretary on the proposal of Federal Secretary. The Political Secretary:
- Implements the directives and executes the orders of the Federal Secretary;
- Promotes and monitors the activities of the Fasces of Combat and Associations dependent on Party;
- Controls the partecipation of the Fascists to the charges and positions within the province.
The Political Secretary also maintains connections with the peripheral organs of the State. In relation to the Regime, he appoints the Party's representatives to the Municipal Assistance Agency. The Political Secretary convenes and chairs the Fasces Directory, summons Fascists in the municipality and members of Associations dependent on the PNF in the municipality for reports.
The Political Secretary proposes to the Federal Secretary the appointment and dismissal of members of the Fascio's Directory, including the appointment of Deputy Political Secretary and Deputy Political Administrative Secretary. The Secretary also proposes the appointment of municipal hierarchy to Prefect, who is not bound to accept them.
He propoese appointments of the Trustees of Fascist Borough Groups and the components of its Consultative Committees, Heads of Sector and Chiefs of Squads. The Political Secretary has the power to constitute and dissolve the Sectors and Squads.
Unlike the lower levels, Municipal Fasces and Provincial Federations are legally authorised and tasked to cooperate to incarceration of political suspects; they run specialised bureaus for cultural, agricultural and other matters.
Directory of the Fascio di Combattimento Edit
The Directory of the Fascio di Combattimento consists of:
- The Deputy Political Secretary;
- The Deputy Administrative Secretary:
- The Deputy Local Commander of the G.I.L. (where appointed, the Political Secretary being the Local Commander)
- The Commanders of the Young Fascists and Avanguardisti
In Provincial Capitals, the municipal Directory has three additional members.
Fascist Borough Groups Edit
Fascist Borough Groups are sections of the municipal Fasci di Combattimento in centres with large population; each Fascist Borough Group is governed by the Trustee (It: Fiduciario), dependent on the municipal Political Secretary of the Fascio of Combat. The Borough Group is usually the lowest element of the Party, and it is the hearth of the political life of the average Party member; all political equipment, local political library and meeting rooms are housed in the Group headquarters, which usually consist of flat-houses or rooms on the ground floor suitable for a shop. While different Groups within a large Combat Fasces may be present two or even more factions, it is extremely unlikely that in a Group there are multiple factions. Often, the Borough Group (where present) is the primary home also to the oldest and most conscious echelons of the G.I.L. (i.e. Young Fascists and Avanguardisti), who mirror the Party's municipal organization: however, the GIL is not subordinated to the Trustee, although both Young Fascists and Avanguardisti (as well as heads of Students Action) are involved in the territorial politics.
The Trustee of the Fascist Borough Group, informally referred to as "Chief", is assisted by a Consultative Committees of five members, which are appointed by him. The Trustee is tasked to implement the directives and carries out the orders of the Political Secretary of the Fascio of Combat. The Political Secretary of the Fascio of Combat designates a Deputy Trustee and an Administrative Consultant, chosen from among the members of the Group Consultative Committee. The Consultative Committee is made up of the Deputy Trustee, the Administrative Consultant and three other members: it has advisory and executive functions. If the borough is still too big to allow the Group to manage its political life, the Group is divided into local Fascist Sectors, the Sectors in Squads. Each Squad is overseen by a Militante and consists of five to ten members.
Municipal Fasces or Goups, Sectors and Squads (where established) Sectors and Squads hold weekly meetings with activists and mebers from the same neighbourhood: the genera rule is to hold meetings at the lowest level avalaible. Members and sympathizers talk about current events, or the Party version of them, in line with the inclinations of the regime: if events are not of great significance for higher levels, they often produce documents in order to contribute to form the Party position. Basic instructions are issued; any irregularities observed during the week are discussed with the leaders and written up in obligatory reports.
Alongside the political part of Party life, the lowest cell is also a human community, consisting of people who derives pleasure from the living experiences together and assembled from the same feeling towards the world: the most common name for this form of political association is the "Human-and-Political Community". In the party life there are as many political meetings as friendly occasions and it is not uncommon that bar and pub brawls see two cells which brawl between them.
Albanian Fascist Party Edit
The Albanian Fascist Party (Albanian: Partia Fashiste e Shqipërisë — PFSh; Italian: Partito Fascista Albanese — PFA) is the Fascist party which holds nominal power in Albania.
The PFSh is a branch of the Italian National Fascist Party with Benito Mussolini at its head and organized along the same lines and principles, and with its own paramilitary Black Shirts, the Albanian Voluntary Militia (Milicia Shqiptare Vullnetare - Milizia Volontaria Albanese). Enrolment in the PFSh was compared to enrolment in the PNF.
Leadership and organization Edit
The PFSh is headed by a Secretary appointed and dismissed by the Duce, at the proposal the Chief of Government of the Albanian Social Republic, after consultation with the Secretary of the PNF. The Secretary of the PFSh retains the title and functions of Minister Secretary of State, is part of the Albanian Government, of the Grand Council and receives Duce's directives and orders by the Secretary of the PNF. The Secretary of the PNF in Albania is represented by an Inspector of the PNF, subordinated to the Secretary of the PFSh.
At each provincial capital is established the Federation of Fasces of Combat of PFSh, and, at each municipality, the Fascio of Combat. Differently from Italian organization, the multi-familiar and clan-like organization of the Albanian society is covered by the PFSh, with Party organizations in every multi-familiar group.