|Military of Jinavia|
|Emblem of Supreme High Command of Imperial Armed Forces|
and Imperial General Staff
|Active||1845 - Present|
|Country||Holy Empire of Jinavia|
|Commander-in-Chief||Emperor Jules IX Vosotorax|
|Chief of Imperial General Staff||Lord Marshal of the Empire Esteban Gallaron|
|Minister of War||Grand Duke Jörg Heimar-Colonna|
|Headquarters||Armies Building, Saint Basilsburg|
|Colours||Black, Red, Gold|
The Imperial Armed Forces of Jinavia constitute the set of the regular armed forces of the Holy Empire of Jinavia. The purpose of the IAF is not only the defense of the borders of the Empire from any enemy, internal or external, but also support the global settlement over the management of communication lines, the development of all technologies too expensive for colonization private entities and generally any other task that the Emperor decided to entrust to them.
On 9th May 1934 the Emperor Jules VIII signed a decree establishing the Jinavian Ministry of War and placing all Jinavian Armed Forces under the newly created Ministry. Although the unified Jinavian armed forces were formed in 1934, the Jinavian military dates its roots back to the times of foundation of the Empire.
As head of state, the Emperor is the Supreme Commander of Imperial Armed Forces, whose statements can not be waived from. By definition, the Imperial Military is under the overall command of the reigning Emperor or Regent as commander-in-chief. Consequently, in his role as the Emperor's Voice, any Imperial Auditor can command military forces as he sees fit. Only the Emperor (or Regent) could override him. Executive authority is exercised by the Prime Minister of the Empire and the Minister of War. The Ministry of War is the highest level of military direction, responsible for formulating, in conjunction with the Imperial General Staff, the policy of the Armed Forces.
Serving in Jinavia’s military forces is considered the best possible career for a Jinavian man, but is almost totally closed to women. Everyone respects a soldier, even an enemy. It’s understood that the economy needs scientists, farmers, professionals, clerks, and other tradesfolk, but real men are soldiers.
Military discipline is achieved by requiring commanders at all levels to always be at the head of his men. The basic order is "FOLLOW ME". The officer is the first out, the first to risk, the first to die. For officers of all arms and services is socially mandatory practice horse-riding, hunting, and of horseracing. Corps and Arms more involved are Cavalry, the Horse Artillery and the Gendarmerie.
The Armed Forces are an unitary and key figure both inside and outside the Empire: although do exist some internal rivalries, both between the Armed Forces and between the Armed Forces as a whole and Military Intelligence Service, the military complex act as unitary actor, directed by the Imperial General Staff and its Chief. During the coups throught Jinavian history, the military has used and minimized the violence against civil society, the latter has not undergone major changes and often ended in a tacit consent, the military has made short stays in power without ever remain for more than three consecutive years and have almost always promoted a return to civilian political process.
The main organ through which the military exercises its role and its authority is the Supreme War Council. The Council is represented in the Council of the University orientation and communication, it determines curricula, establishes schedules of some television broadcasts.
The Armed Forces exercise absolute and almost exclusive control on their operation, recruitment and career systems as well as the assessment and management of the budget that is consecrated to them. Even today, this special treatment results in a separation from the rest of society, which is also physical: the military who live in a city live in "sites", small neighbourhoods surrounded by barbed wire, with their shops, have their own educational system and a system selection ideological official and semi-official (as required by regulations, to be promoted to higher ranks must have a practitioner Christian family).
The Jinavian military function as a "state within the state" with a very large margin of institutional autonomy that operates largely outside the control of politicians. On the other hand, all officers in all four services have to be thoroughly versed in the official Imperial doctrine and to apply its values in all situations.
Reflecting this position as a "state within the state", the Imperial Armed Forces have, within the Imperial General Staff, the Office of the Ministerial Affairs, in order to lobby politicians ostensibly for improved military budgets, but in fact to be the vehicle for military interference with politics.
Military expenditures are not subject to parliamentary debate, nor discussed or criticized by the press. The Armed Forces, as well as controlling the defence industries and thus the production of weapons, run the "industry support and defence fund", consisting of the 5% tax on professions, from 10% of the tax on alcoholic beverages and on petrol and the profits from the state lottery. But what makes the Armed Forces a real market player is the Common Fund of the Foundations of the Armed Forces (formed by all foundations and financial assistance instruments related to the four Armed Forces), through its holding company is active in banking, insurance, construction, real estate.
No soldier of the Imperial Armed Forces is allowed to be a member of a political party nor to vote in an election. This is because in theory there is a strict separation between politics and the armed forces.
The Ministry of War serves as the administrative body of the Armed Forces. The General Staff acts as the main commanding and supervising body of the Armed forces: the General Staff without the MoW is conceivable, but the MoW without the General Staff is not. The General Staff does not work under Ministry, but alongside, in its capacity of Armed Forces High Command, a structure in theory distinct from General Staff but headed by same officer.
Other departments include the personnel directorate as well as the Rear Services, railroad troops and construction troops. The Chief of the General Staff is currently Lord Marshal of the Empire Esteban Gallaron.
The Jinavian military is divided into the following branches:
- The Imperial Army
- The Imperial Navy
- The Imperial Air Force
- The Imperial Gendarmerie
There are also two independent arms of service:
- Strategic Missile Forces
- Military Space Forces
Are part of the Armed Forces also Military Archdiocese, Joint Health Service Command and the Army Selected Reserve.
Nuclear weapons Edit
Strategic Missile Forces controls Jinavian nuclear warheads, alongside with the Navy, which controls the submarine based missiles and with the Air Force, which controls the air-launched warheads. Jinavia's nuclear warheads are deployed in four areas:
- Land based immobile (silos)
- Land-based mobile
- Submarine based
- Air-launched warheads
The country's nuclear forces receive adequate funding. The number of intercontinental ballistic missiles and warheads on active duty has increased over the years.
Imperial General Staff Edit
The Imperial General Staff is the highest command of the armed forces of the Empire. Its tasks consist in the coordination of command of the four armed forces. It is a single body responsible for the continuous study of all aspects of the war, and the drafting and revision of plans for the mobilization and campaign.
The General Staff is distinguished by its selection of its members based on merit, skills and training and a method that requires education at the Imperial General Staff Course, designed to create a team of military professionals united by method and vision, and an almost monastic devotion to work. The staff officers alternate between assignment to operational units and assignments to General Staff duties, always remaining part of this special organization.
The chief of staff in a major unit in the field has the right to oppose the plans or orders of the commander of the unit, contacting commander and up to the sovereign. The Imperial General Staff needs only to issue directives in principle to large units, leaving their staffs the task of translating into practice the doctrines and details according to established methods.
The basic principle of the imperial military is unity of command, from the highest level to the smaller team. The Armed Forces are intended to be branches of a single service, led by the Imperial General Staff.
The Imperial General Staff controls all matters of Joint policy, both in peace and in war. It is responsible for the preparation of the defense in peacetime and for the conduct of operations in wartime. Staffs of the Armed Forces, as well as representing the Governing Body of the individual Armed Force, operating in effect as allocations of the Imperial General Staff.
Staff nomenclature Edit
The Imperial General Staff (alongside with every military staff in Jinavia) adopts a Staff System Classification in structuring their staff functions. In this system each staff position in a headquarters or unit is assigned a letter-prefix corresponding to the formation's element and one or more numbers specifying a role.
- 1, for personnel and administration
- 2, for intelligence and security
- 3, for operations
- 4, for logistics
- 5, for plans (3 and 5 are often merged in a single section, Operations and Plans)
- 6, for signal
- 7, for training.
- 8, for resource management
- 9, for Legal and Civil affairs.
The staff functions are prefixed by the Armed Force Prefix. These prefixes are:
- IGS, for Imperial General Staff headquarters
- G, for Army, Gendarmerie or Marines headquarters division level and above ("General" or "Ground");
- A, for Air Force headquarters;
- N, for Navy headquarters;
- IG, for Imperial Guard headquarters
- C, for combined headquarters (multiple nations) headquarters;
- F, for deployable headquarters;
- J, for Joint (multiple services) headquarters;
- S, for staff roles within headquarters of organizations commanded by an executive officer with the rank of major or above.
- M, for minor independent element, that is a part of a non-staff organization.
Chief of Imperial General Staff Edit
- See also: General Staff (Jinavia)
The Chief of the Imperial General Staff is the professional head of the Jinavian Armed Forces and the principal military adviser to the Government. The Emperor is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and therefore is senior to the CIGS.
Overseas military units Edit
Numerous military units are raised and deployed in Jinavian Colonial Commonwealth, including Dominions, Colonies and protectorates. Whereas Dominions raise their own armies, the defence of Crown possessions and colonies is the responsibility of the Holy Empire of Jinavia. All military forces of overseas territories are, therefore, under the direct command of the Jinavian Government, via the local Governor-General in his capacity of Commander-In-Chief.
Dominion Forces units can be mobilized for active duty to supplement regular armed forces during times of war or national emergency. They can be activated for service in their respective Dominions upon declaration of a state of emergency by the Governor General of the territory in which they serve. Unlike Army Reserve members, Dominion Guard members cannot be mobilized individually.
The Commonwealth Forces Bureau is in Saint Basilsburg, and is a joint activity beteween the Ministry of War and His Majesty's Office for Dominion Affairs. It conducts the administrative matters pertaining to the mobilizations of Dominions militaries. The Chief of Imperial General Staff is responsible of co-ordinating overall policies and, in case of a total war, of commanding all military forces of Jinavian Colonial Commonwealth.
Most officials rank equivalent to officers; there are some with equivalent high NCO (Senior NCO) ranks. The Military Officials are members of the Armed Forces, but they are not "soldiers". As officials, their authority extends only to their specialty field - unlike soldiers, whose authority extends to anyone whom the individual outranks. Officials could not hold command. They are entitled to all the customs and courtesies associated with their rank/status, however. In the social order, being an officer is the peak of the pyramid: if being a regular officer is impossible, being a reserve officer is next best, and a very close approximation of that would have been appointment as an official.
The main difference between officer and official status depend much on education. Officials are by no means lesser-educated officers but they do not meet the professional education/training requirements for appointment as officers or soldiers.
Not all Armed Forces civilians are Officials; many are hired on the Civil Service scale and served in administrative and clerical positions; basically, they are civilian employees.
Guards Units Edit
Guards units are elite units and formations in the armed forces of Jinavia and Dominions. These units are awarded Guards status is not an assimilation to the Imperial Guard. The title of the Guards is introduced for the distinguished services during wartime. The units and formations nominated for the Guard Units title receive special Guards banners.
Military Oath of allegiance Edit
The Imperial Military Oath is the oath of allegiance of the Jinavian military.
|I swear by God this holy oath, that I want to offer unconditional obedience to the Emperor of the Jinavian Empire and people, Jules of Jinavia, the commander-in-chief of the Imperial Armed Forces, and be prepared as a brave soldier to risk my life for this oath at any time.|
It is to note that people and Fatherland are superseded by the person of the Emperor himself. In addition, the obedience is to be unconditional.
Military Ordinariate Edit
- See also: Military Ordinariate of Jinavia
The Military Ordinaray is an Archidiocese with particular characteristics: it is not the territory but the service to characterize this reality. Belong to the Military Ordinary:
- Military personnel;
- The civil service of the Armed Forces, their families, relatives and their servants;
- Students of Military Schools and Academies;
- The residents, workers at military hospitals, or at military nursing residences;
- All the faithful carrying out their duties permanently assigned to them by the Military Archidiocese or with his consent.
Military Chaplains are classified among military personnel, equivalent in rank of commisioned officer rank, and live with the military.
Military Selected Reserve Edit
Military Selected Reserve consists of soldiers who are serving a given time in a department or command, in addition to the forces in permanent service. Depending on training reservists can be used for tasks or operational staff both on the national territory in all missions abroad.
Joint Health Service Edit
The Health Service Command is part of the Imperial Armed Forces. The medical staff of all four Armed Forces is assigned to centralized military authority to focus their skills. The medical departments are members of their armed forces. The specialized health services do not belong to the Health Service Command.
Political commissariat Edit
The Emperor's Bureau for Loyal Orthodoxy and Adherence to Dogma is the supervisory political office responsible for the political education and organisation, and loyalty to the government of the military.
The Political Commissar holds military rank subordinate to unit commander to whom he is attached; despite this, the Commissar also has the military authority to countermand the unit commander’s orders, although only when strictly required by circumstances: the commissars' work is ordinarily confined to non-combat functions. The political supervision of the Imperial military is effected by the Political Commissar, who are present to every unit and formation, from battalion- to division-level, including all armed corps but Imperial Guard. Emperor's Military Committees (EMC) are established at levels beyond division, comprising at least three members — Head and two Political Commissars.
Commissars are addressed as "Military Rank hold-Commissar": for example, Captain Commissair, Major Commissar, etc.
The Bureau is headed by a Director-General. There are five Directors and two Deputy Directors. The Director-General is assisted by a Secretary General of the Bureau. The Bureau also has a series of departments under it:
- The Discipline Inspection Department;
- The Foreign Affairs Department;
- The Justice Department;
- Cadre Department;
- Culture Department;
- Directly Subordinated Organs Work Department;
- Liaison Department;
- Organization Department;
- Propaganda Department;
- Security Department.
The Bureau also oversees the Imperial Military Museums, the IF Literature and Art Press, IAF Pictorial, and IAF Press.
Intersevice Higher Education Edit
Joint Command and Staff College Edit
Task of Institute is to develop and improve vocational training and cultural knowledge of military officers intended to hold positions of particular importance in Staffs, in areas Force, joint and international.
The students of the Advanced Course of Staff Command in the rank of major and lieutenant colonel or equivalent, are selected from among the officers who attended the courses of Staff at the War College of the Armed Forces.
Groups of foreign officers coming from friendly nations and allies and some civilians can participate at the course at the invitation of Chief of the Imperial General Staff.
Regular conferences are also held by eminent personalities and high ranking officers. Areas where educational activities are developed are:
- policy and international relations;
- Economics and Organization;
- Defense and security;
- Planning and Operations;
- Laws and military systems.
- Course for the Legal Adviser to the Armed Forces.
Institute for Advanced Studies of War Edit
The Institute for Advanced Study of War (IASW) organizes annual meetings to update the study of national security and defense strategies. The Directorate of IASW is entrusted to the President of Directors, which will rely on the Coadjutor of Directors. These are officers in the rank of General of division or brigade or equivalent level of the armed forces and a civilian manager with the rank of Director General from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The oldest of Directors Coadjutors military acts as Coordinator of Studies and the others are responsible for so many other visitors to the Institute. The frequenters of IASW are:
- Colonels or Generals (or equivalent ranks) appointed by the head of Imperial General Staff on a proposal Chiefs of Staff of Armed Forces
- Directors of Civil Defence Ministry and other ministries, reported by the respective departments;
- Foreign officers in equivalent ranks, who accepted the invitation of Chief of IGS.
- Civilian personnel admitted at the invitation of the head of IGS.
Each study session lasts about nine months, divided into two phases. In particular:
- an early stage, nearly two months, aims to provide a first level of basic knowledge common to all participants on issues of politics and international relations;
- a seminar stage, lasting nine months, which are focused and in-depth issues of particular importance and interest.
Recruitment and appointment of General and Flag Officers Edit
For promotion to a permanent rank of General or Flag officer, eligible officers are screened by a promotion board consisting of general or flag officers from their Armed Force. This promotion board then generates a list of officers it recommends for promotion. This list is then sent to the Armed Force Deputy Minister and the Chief of Staff for review before it can be sent to the Emperor, through the Minister of War, for consideration. The Emperor nominates officers to be promoted from this list with the advice of the Minister of War and the responsible Deputy Minister. The Emperor may nominate any eligible officer who is not on the recommended list if it serves in the interest of the nation, but this is uncommon. The House of Peers must then confirm the nominee by a majority vote before the officer can be promoted. Once a nominee is confirmed, they are promoted to that rank once they assume or are in a position of office that requires or allows an officer of that rank.
Military Districts Edit
In the Imperial Armed Forces, a military district is an interservice territorial association of military units, formations, military schools, and various local military establishments. This territorial division type is utilized to provide a more efficient management of army units, their training and other operations activities related to combat readiness.
A military district operates under the command of the District Headquarters, headed by the District Commander, and is subordinated to the Imperial General Staff. Military Districts have a jurisdiction which is the same of the Imperial Regions, in order to allow civil high officials to restore more efficiently the Imperial order and authority.
Military settlements Edit
Military settlement represent a special organization of the Jinavian military forces, which allows the combination of military service and agricultural employment, outside the chain of local government. They are intended to prevent riots, especially in territories populated by ethnic rebel minorities.
The quartered military forces are being formed from among married soldiers, who have already served in the army for no less than six years, and local men (mainly, peasants) between 18 and 45 years of age. Both of these categories are called Master Settlers. The rest of the locals of the same age, who have been fit for military service, but have not been chosen, are being enlisted as assistants to their masters and are a part of reserve military subdivisions. The children of the military settlers are being enlisted in the local military schools at the age of 7. Upon reaching the age of 18, they are transferred to the military units. The Settlers can retire at the age of 45 and continue to serve in hospitals and other establishments.
Each military settlement consist of 60 interconnected houses with a Company of 228 men. Each such house has four masters with indivisible household economy. The life in a military settlement is strictly controlled. The peasants have to undergo military training. Corporal punishment is a common phenomenon.
Jinavia has a mandatory military service for men which starts at the age of 21. Duration of military service is dependent on some conditions and circumstances. There is an 24 month military service for general and two months for basic military training. There are exceptions for those who cannot serve because of physical or mental health problems or disabilities. Students are exempt as long as they are attending school or universities. The higher the education of a man, the higher his rank will be in the military service.
Exemptions from the military service, but also military duty in case of war include:
- Single fathers.
- Only Children; Men who do not have brothers or sisters their mother and/or father need the assistance of their only son.
- Only Son; Men who are the only male in their family.
- Men who are the sole carers of a disabled or mentally problematic parent, sibling, or 2nd line family members.
Prisoners may be excused of their sentence to serve in the military at a time of war or to complete military service in exchange for a reduced sentence dependent on the nature of the crime committed. Men reaching 21 years old who are not granted exemption from the military service are not able to apply for a driving license, passport, or leave the country without special permission.
Ministry of War Edit
The Ministry of War of the Holy Jinavian Empire exercises operational leadership of the armed forces of Jinavia.
The Jinavian Minister of War is the top civilian authority of all the armed forces, serving under the Emperor, in whom executive authority over the military is vested. In this capacity, the minister exercises day-to-day operational authority over the armed forces. The Imperial General Staff implements instructions and orders of the Minister of War. The Russian president is the Commander-in-chief. The Imperial Parliament exercises legislative authority over the Ministry of War through the Government of the Empire, which is responsible for maintaining the armed forces at the appropriate level of readiness.
The Ministry of War is managed by the Minister of War and by a collegium of four first deputy ministers, four deputy ministers, and a chief military inspector, who together form the principal staff and advisory board of the minister of War.
Military Secretariat General - National Armaments Directorate Edit
The Military Secretariat General - National Armaments Directorate is responsible for the implementation of directives issued by the Minister in respect of top management, operation of the technical-administrative, promotion and direction of technological research materials related to weapons, the supply of vehicles, materials and weapon systems for the Armed Forces and support to the military.
The main responsibilities of the Military General Secretariat concern the implementation of directives issued by the Minister in respect of top management, operation of the military administration, promotion and coordination of research related to technological weapon materials, procurement of vehicles, materials and weapon systems for the Armed Forces and support to the Jinavian military industry.
Military Secretary-General Edit
The Military Secretary-General is a General Officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force or the Gendarmerie with the rank of Army General or equivalent in permanent service.
He is appointed by Decree of the Emperor, having heard the Minister of War and the Chief of Imperial General Staff.
The Secretary-General reports directly to the Minister of War for administrative duties, and to the Chief of Imperial General Staff for the technical and operational responsibilities. The Military Secretary General, in case of absence, impediment or vacancy of office, is replaced by the Deputy Secretary General, which performs the functions of Deputy National Armaments Director and he is assisted by the Board of Deputy Secretaries, who come from Dominion Armed Forces.
The Military Secretary General issues regulations implementing the policy direction and administration on the area of high industrial and administrative sectors of the military, which is given by the Minister of War, to achieve the objectives.
The Secretary-General receives from the Chief of Imperial General Staff directives with regard to the activities of study and experimentation, procurement of materials and weapons systems, and prepares, in consultation with the Chief of Imperial General Staff, the proposed annual plan and long-term relating to the industrial area of interest and allocate funds. He directs legal affairs, economic, and social discipline of military and civilian personnel, following are the trade-union problems and parliamentary activities. The Secretary-General has under him the Directors General of the Ministry and is responsible for the address and the coordination of their activities.
On the basis of the Minister of War and directives of the Chief of Imperial General Staff, the Secretary-General proposes the actions necessary to harmonize the goals of research and development, production and supply with the national economic, industrial and scientific policies.
He also proposes to the Minister of War, on the recommendation of the Director General for the Civilian Personnel, the civic leaders to be allocated to the Directorates General and bodies of administrative and industrial areas.
General Office of the Secretary-General Edit
The Chief of General Office, with the rank of General of Brigade or the corresponding ranks, has responsibility for answering the Secretary General. In this context, the Chief of General Office provides the support necessary to the Secretary-General and pursues the purpose of coordinating and controlling the activities of the Directorates General.
The Chief of the General Office is actively working to institutional and personnel of the Secretary General in all matters concerning the exercise of the powers conferred. The Chief of the General Office in particular provides staff services to Secretary-General, carries out consultancy duties and directs the activities of the secretariat for the Secretary-General; he also carries out coordination activities and acquire the necessary information and oversees the Public Information Service of the Administrative Area.
Land Armaments Directorate Edit
The Land Armaments Directorate performs the following tasks:
- Coverage of activities related to financial planning, annual and multiannual;
- Financial management of the expenditure items of relevance;
- Emanations of Technical Publications, codes and technical guidelines;
- Studies, experiments and tests for the approval/qualification of new materials of competence, including technical development, standardization, supply and distribution of:
- Artillery, small arms and equipment;
- Ammunition, mines and explosives - excluding aircraft bombs, naval mines, depth bombs and torpedoes;
- NBC defense equipment and works on fields of battle;
- Surface/Surface missile systems other than the ship systems
- Surface/air missile systems other than the ship systems;
- Electronic, optical and optoelectronic devices for weapon systems;
- Wheeled and tracked service, amphibious, tactical, armoured, combat or special veichles;
- Wheeled and tracked for engineering work veichles and equipment
- Raw materials and equipment
Directorate General for Military Personnel (DIGEMILP) Edit
The Directorate General administers the military personnel recruitment, legal in the state, the advancement in the field of discipline and rewards and deals with the budget and economic treatment, documentation of military service and feature.
The General Directorate is divided into 6 departments, 16 divisions and 5 services.
The Director General is supported by four Deputy Directors General, Office of the Chief General Manager, Head of Legal Services and Chief Information Service.
Directorate General for the Occupied Territories Edit
The Directorate General for the Occupied Territories is created to control the areas captured by the Imperial Army in Eastern continental landmass outside Jinavian Peninsula in case of major expansion wars. It directs and controls the Imperial Commissariats.
Imperial Commissariats Edit
Imperial Commissariat is the designation for a type of administrative office, headed by an Imperial Commissioner, used to administer occupied territorial units. These entities are directly controlled by their supreme civil authorities, who rule their assigned territories as Jinavian governors on behalf of and as direct representatives of the Emperor.
The introduction of the Imperial Commissariats are transitional phases for the future incorporation into an expanded Holy Jinavian Empire, if possible, or as sources of future ethnic expansion for Jinavian peoples and settlements and the exploitation of natural resources, if an annexation is not possible.
In the first case local administrators and bureaucrats are pressured to continue their regular day-to-day operations albeit under invaders and occupiers' oversight: the Commissariats' future is being part of a greater Empire, and so there is no need or reason to humiliate and throw into confusion future fellow citizens. In the second case, where there is no possibility to incorporate ad Indo-European population, completely new such structures are introduced.
Security tasks Edit
The office of Security and Consolidation Commander (SeCoC) is an occupation-time office which is granted considerable power. The position is a command authority of every secuirity-tasked military (mostly but not only Gendarmerie) and even Imperial Guard unit in a given geographical area. Security and Consolidation Commanders have control over administrative military commands, concentration camps, security forces and certain units of the Imperial Guard.
There are three levels of Security and Consolidation Commander, these being:
- Supreme Security and Consolidation Commander: These Security and Consolidation Commanders have command over all security-tasked units in a conquered country. Even during major wars not all conquered countries are given a Supreme SeCoC.
- Higher Security and Consolidation Commander: These commands hold authority over a region, district, or even state.
- Security and Consolidation Commander: These commanders are in charge or specific cities, usually important or significant ones.