The military of the Italian Social Republic include both the Italian Armed Forces and the Fascist Forces, in turn consisting of the National Republican Guard and the Voluntary Militia for National Security. Both Italian Armed Forces and National Republican Guard include their autonomous commands assigned to the Autonomous Republics, while the Voluntary Militia for National Security follows a different organization. These forces total about 733,000 active personnel (including the National Republican Guard). All branches of armed forces fall under the command of Supreme Command of Armed Forces, vested in the Duce of the Republic, and are managed by the Chief of Defence Staff (It: Capo dello Stato Maggiore Difesa, CSMD). The Ministry of National Defence is responsible for planning logistics and funding of the armed forces and is not involved with in-the-field military operational command.
The Italian Armed Forces are comprised of Italian regular navy, ground forces, air force and the military corps of the police forces; they are manned by a combination of conscripts and volunteers/career personnel. The Italian Armed Forces consist of the National Republican Army (Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano, E.N.R.), National Republican Navy (Marina da Guerra Nazionale Repubblicana, M.N.R.), National Republican Air Force (Areonautica Nazionale Repubblicana, A.N.R.) and Republican Police Corps (Corpo di Polizia Repubblicana, C.P.R.), although the latter one, togheter to the Republican Guard of Finance, is a military corps and not an Armed Force. The regular armed forces have an about 593,000 personnel. A secondary military corps is the Ethiopian Defence Force, tasked to contribute to the ground defence and security of the Ethiopian Social Republic. Thanks to the favourable economic situation, the Fascist Regime has been able to maintain high military expenditures without eroding too much social and economic expenditure. The militarization of the Italian society had led to a concentration of political power in the military sector. Such a phenomenon encouraged military intervention in politics until mid 1980s.
In partial contrast to the MVSN and its branches, the Armed Forces wield lesser influence in the regime political centres of power due to the relatively high resistance to Debalti's leadership changes. In line with the Constitution, the Armed Forces must be committed to Fascist and Nationalist ideology and they is responsible for guarding the territorial integrity of the country as well as the order of the Fascist regime. The Military Political Commission of the Defence General Staff (It: Commissione Politico-Militare dello Stato Maggiore della Difesa) is a 2002-established State-only organization which carries out political education and supervision of the military personnel; it is managed by an high-ranking military figure, personal representative of Duce Italo Debalti. Dedicated military officers with significant political background are present at every formation or major command of the Armed Forces.
Following early 2000s consolidation, a sort of cult of personality has begun. Senior officer ranks suffer from the “leadership syndrome”. Duce Italo Debalti's portrait, in various poses, as the Supreme Commander of the Italian Armed Forces adorns military websites, journals, offices, and establishments. Although nowadays well entrenched, the politicization represents a change even in a dictatorial State like Fascist Italy. Prior the declaration of overt hostility towards Italy, the Armed Forces were avowedly apolitical. They were - and still are - a national institution, created and maintained to defend the nation against external threats, although the near totality of military personnel is Fascist. Unlike the MVSN, it is not a revolutionary institution and until mid 2000s they did not interpret their primary mission as defending the Fascist Regime; after mid 2000s, the ideological pressure reached also official rhetoric, which however remains openly nationalist and apolitical. This apolitical character of the military institution as a whole (although there are several institutional exceptions and both rank-and-file and top personnel is definitively not apolitical) is seen by the Italian leadership as a possible weak point which may be exploited in case of a colour revolution.
The National Republican Guard (Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana, GNR) has about 130,000 personnel in various branches: its own Air service (for territorial control and army aviation tasks) and ground forces; and the "D" Force (Forza "D", praetorian and special forces), as well as the MVSN part of the Joint Cyber Warfare Force and other secondary branches; albeit being an elite force, the regular military retains the clear majority of strategic assets, such as armour and other assets. The National Fascist Party as a whole theoretically is a paramilitary volunteer force, controlled for what concerns military preparedness by the Militia. The Voluntary Militia for National Security (Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, M.V.S.N.) is the Party's territorial armed force and performs Gendarmerie-like duties, such as riot suppression tasks, and proper activities.
Alongside the national military or militarized branches, also in the Autonomous Republics within the Italian Empire there are militarized gendarmerie forces, as well as the relevant MVSN branches.
Italian Constitution Edit
Italian Constitution talks about war and use of military force in three distinct parts. First of all, the declaration of war is described as "the ultimate instrument", not talking about other military actions: Italy considers war as the ultimate instrument for the defence of national sovereignty and as settlement of serious international disputes (art. 11).
The defence of the country is regarded as a sacred duty for every citizen. Military service is obligatory. Its fulfilment does not prejudice a citizen's job. The organisation of the armed forces shall be based on the Fascist views of the Social Republic (art. 12). And part of article 87 says that the Duce of the Republic is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and make declarations of war or peace.
Political control of the military Edit
The political control is seen as a prerequisite feature of a stable Fascist State democracy. The principle upheld is that the Party commands the gun, and the gun must never be allowed to command the Party, reflecting the primacy of the National Fascist Party as decision-makers. The military — which serves both as a symbol of the revolution and an instrument of the Italian Nation — is not merely expected to defer to the direction of the ruling Party members, but also to actively participate in the building of a Fascist order. A separate branch of the P.N.F. is established just for members of the armed forces, reporting directly to Party Secretariat. In addition, the PNF also controls the admission to the military academies, vetoing notorious anti-fascists. Similarly, the Regime shuffles senior officers to insure that they did not form power bases or enduring alliances against the Regime itself or against meritocracy. In addition, Duce Debalti keeps the top command in his own hands and encourages some senior military officials to report also to him personally.
Actions designed to control the military are carefully balanced with the severe need to not have emasculated or demoralized Armed Forces; also the insulation of the Armed Forces from the political background is seen with fear and suspect.
Political control of the professional military is also conducted by the OVRA Third Central Directorate, whose personnel are to be found in all levels of the military from the Defence Staff down to the Regiment. The Directorate performs security functions including responsibilities in ideological and political education of troops, internal security operations against dissidents of all types, political propaganda, indoctrination, and related tasks. For overt political control, it interacts with the Military Political Commission of the Defence General Staff (It: Commissione Politico-Militare dello Stato Maggiore della Difesa), which is a 2002-established State-only organization carrying out political education and supervision of the military personnel; it is managed by an high-ranking military figure, personal representative of Duce Italo Debalti. The Commission directly controls the higher echelons of the professional military down to the division level; its subordinate branches, called Political-Military Unit Offices (Uffici Politico-Militari di Reparto), are attached to the brigades, regiments and battalions. Below the battalion level, political control is exercised by so-called Political Groups (Gruppi Politici), together with the local PNF local sections and associations, as well as with the Arms and Corps Associations. These Groups, which function as cells of the PNF, are found in every company and platoon. Indoctrination is relatively relaxed and all OVRA/PNF organizations are strictly and severely prohibited from interfering with the regular chain of command and with military affairs.
Commander in Chief and Joint Defence Council Edit
As Commander in Chief, Duce Italo Debalti has the power to:
- appoint and dismiss the chief of the Defence Staff of the professional military;
- appoint and dismiss the top commanders of the MVSN;
- supervise the activities of the Joint Defence Council (It: Consiglio Congiunto di Difesa, CGD);
- appoint and dismiss the Armed Force commanders;
- declare war and mobilize the armed forces.
In addition, Duce Debalti appoints his own two representatives in the Supreme Defence Council, who regularly brief him on Council's activities and thus extend Debalti's supervision over that body. The Supreme Defence Council top membership is composed of Italy's Duce, Prime Minister, Minister of National Defence, Chief of Defence Staff, the MVSN Commandant General and two representatives of Debalti. Other high-ranking officials also attend its meetings on a more or less regular basis; these include the Interior Minister, the Armed Forces commanders, Chief of Police and others. The CGD is responsible for advising the government to draw defence policy, planning, and direction. As such it exercise a serious influence on the operations of senior commanders. Equally important, the CGD maintains a large secretariat whose staff members are posted to main military echelons, i.e. the Defence General Staff and Armed Force Staffs. The basic function of the CGD Secretariat is to ensure the political and ideological loyalty of senior field commanders. The majority of CGD staff members are PNF party officials with relevant military and/or combat experience (often retired or serving MVSN officers); they watch over the field commanders and in exceptional circumstances are also empowered to veto some of their decisions.
Military associations Edit
In Italy, retired and discharged military personnel partecipate to their own Military Associations, which are established by the State belong to the Ministries of Defence, Interior and Finance. Military Associations are divided between Corps Associations (Associazioni d'Arma, which include also non-Armed Forces Associations), Veterans associations, associations between the relatives of the Fallen Ones, and Category Associations. As common factor, all of these associations are structures with "non-profit" status and they are directed by Trustees (Fiduciari) appointed every two to five years. They publish periodicals to spread patriotic and military historic content. They also promote cultural activities, technical assistance and propaganda, through conferences, rallies, demonstrations and direct participation to Civil Protection operations.
All Military associations are firmly controlled by the National Fascist Party, which organizes them and considers them as Special Fasces (Fasci Speciali) within the Military Fasces (Fascio Militare). The "Permanent Council of coordination between Arms Associations" (It: Consiglio Permanente di Coordinamento tra Associazioni d'Arma, ASSOARMA) plays a role of general assistance to the military no longer in active service and brings together all the Military Associations. The ASSOARMA organization is based according to a territorial structure. Therefore, there are provincial, municipal and zonal ASSOARMA sections; each of them depends on the relevant Combat Fasces.
Veterans associations Edit
The Veterans Associations (Associazioni Combattentistiche) gather, beyond the division in Arms, Corps and Armed Forces (Infantry, Cavalry, etc..) and beyond Categories (Officers, Sub-officers, etc.), all those who have fought or are veterans or former prisoners of war. Also the Golden Medal National Association belongs to Veterans Association, and only those who have the requisites can join Veterans associations.
- Associazione Nazionale Medaglie d'Oro, A.N.M.O. (Golden Medal National Association);
- Unione Nazionale Combattenti e Reduci, U.N.C.R. (National Union of Combatants and Veterans);
- Associazione Nazionale Reduci Prigionia di Guerra (National Association of Former Prisoners of War);
- Istituto del Nastro Azzurro fra Decorati al Valor Militare (Institute of the Blue Ribbon between those decorated for Military Valour);
- Associazione Nazionale Volontari di Guerra (National Association of War Volunteers).
Category Associations Edit
The Category Associations group all military personnel according to their category: Officers, Subofficers and Troops. Some of these Associations are reserved for retired or discharged personnel, while others can be joined also by active duty soldiers.
- Associazione Nazionale Ufficiali Provenienti dal Servizio Attivo;
- Associazione Nazionale Ex-Allievi Accademia Militare;
- Unione nazionale ufficiali in congedo d'Italia;
- Unione Nazionale Sottufficiali Italiani;
- Associazione Nazionale Militari di Truppa d'Italia.
Arms Associations Edit
The Arms Associations are composed of former members of the various Arms and Corps, regardless of division into categories (Officers, Subofficers, etc..), or into war campaigns waged. These Associations are usually, but not always, divided according the Arm or Corps; however, sometimes the Associations groups a whole Armed Force or only a Specialty within and Arm or a Corps. Also sympathizers can enrol in these Associations.
- Associazione Nazionale del Fante;
- Associazione Nazionale Granatieri di Sardegna;
- Associazione Nazionale Bersaglieri;
- Associazione Nazionale Paracadutisti d'Italia;
- Associazione Lagunari Truppe Anfibie;
- Associazione Nazionale Alpini;
- Associazione Nazionale Arma di Cavalleria;
- Associazione Nazionale Carristi d'Italia;
- Associazione Nazionale Artiglieri d'Italia;
- Associazione Nazionale Genieri e Trasmettitori;
- Associazione Nazionale Autieri d'Italia;
- Associazione Nazionale Sanità Militare;
- Associazione Nazionale Ufficiali Tecnici Italiani;
- Associazione Nazionale Aviazione dell'Esercito;
- Associazione nazionale Marinai d'Italia;
- Associazione Arma Aeronautica;
- Associazione Nazionale Finanzieri d'Italia;
- Associazione Nazionale Corpo delle Guardie di Pubblica Sicurezza;
- Associazione Nazionale Funzionari di Pubblica Sicurezza;
- Associazione Nazionale Militi Volontari per la Sicurezza Nazionale;
- Associazione Nazionale Guardie Nazionali Repubblicane;
- Istituto nazionale per la guardia d'onore alle Reali Tombe del Pantheon;
- Istituto nazionale per la guardia d'onore alla Tomba del DUCE.
Military Post Edit
The Military Post (Posta Militare) is a support organization of the Armed Forces. During the peace time it is entrusted to the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, using the Postal Administration staff. In wartime civilian personnel is militarized and supported and coordinated by Post-Telegraph MVSN. The decentralized structure in the country is divided into Regional Inspectorates and Military Post Offices. Civilian agencies of the State use the Post Civil.
Military Justice Edit
The military justice is administered by a joint organization, the Corps of Military Justice (Corpo di Giustizia Militare). The Corps is composed of Troops and Subofficers (for support and clerical tasks) and serving Officers; the latter are subdivided into three Roles: Prosecutors, Judges and Court Clerks. Troops, Subofficers and Officers are drawn only from the State Armed Forces (Army, Navy and Air Force) and from the State Armed Corps (Prison Police Corps, Republican Police Corps and Republican Guard of Finance).
Military Inspectorate for Labour Edit
The Military Inspectorate for Labour (Ispettorato Militare per il Lavoro, IML) has a mandate to support the Armed Forces in the rear, with the task of drawing up of military infrastructure such as roads, fortifications, defensive structures, depots, warehouses, shelters, trenches, trenches, anti-aircraft, pitches and at the same time rehabilitating roads and damaged by air strikes or other reasons war. The IML is a tool for the restoration of social life and activity of war. The Inspectorate is structured on a General Command, five regional inspectorates and 55 Battalions workers militarized.
Nemesis is the top-secret command of Italian Social Republic that provides locations for the HeadQuarters of Duce, aerospace warning, air sovereignty protection, and ultimate defence for the Country. Headquarters od Duce and the military command centre are both located in the Gran Sasso.
Gran Sasso Nuclear Bunker Edit
The Gran Sasso Nuclear Bunker is a military installation with Nemesis centres. Operations are conducted at five major centres: the Command Centre, Air Warning, Missile Correlation, Operations, Watch, and Space Control.
Headquarters of Duce Edit
The headquarters of the Duce are the heart and brain of the military command of Italian Social Republic, the hub of all activities of military policy coordinating republican military actions.
The headquarters of the Duce have the characteristics of a field Headquarters: Command, the General Staff, the several structures, the technical-logistics, communications centres and transport, defence organization, guard and security units, decentralized operations centre and the necessary service infrastructure: transmission, transportation facilities by land, sea and air, air defence positions with radar equipment, air-defence batteries, fighter squadrons and aircraft connection. It is a joint military organization, composed of personnel of the Armed Forces, National Republican Guard, OVRA and the Militia, specially chosen and selected.
Security is guaranteed by off-limits to traffic areas, checkpoints and mobile intervention units including:
- The "Duce's Own Squadron" ("Squadrone del Duce") (GNR), for the personal protection of the Duce
- Public Security - Nemesis (Republican Police Corps company)
- GNR "M" Legion "Guardia del Duce"
- Motorway MVSN Squadron "Duce's Own Escort" ("Scorta del Duce")
- Motorway MVSN Special Squadron
- PNF Secretary Escort Squadron
- Car Unit
- Guard Unit "Bir el Gobi"
The garrison units include:
- 613th, 614th and 618th GNR Companies
- 1st MVSN Mobile Battalion
- 2nd MVSN Battalion "Carmelo Borg Pisani"
The anti-aircraft defense is provided by:
- 12th Group A.R.CO.
- 12th MVSN Heavy Battery
- Two radar Batteries
- An armoured protection unit "Leoncello" is assigned to ensure security of the near airport.
Communications use a military satellite network, the normal civil network, the radio link of Monte Baldo and radiotelegraph and satellite transmission stations.
Cabinet RS/33 (Gabinetto RS/33) is a top-secret government agency framed within the OVRA, funded by Mussolini in 1933, following an air crash of an unidentified flying object. As the name states, the scientific cabinet is focused on special research (Ricerche Speciali, special research). The agency consists of famous scientists, assembled in order to study special phoenomens.
Territorial military organization Edit
The territory of R.S.I. is organized in Military Regional Commands and Provincial Military Command. Each Regional Military Command consists of a Command, a HQ with a delegation of the Superintendency and a battalion. Each province is run by a Provincial Military Command with its own HQ, a company and the Provincial Military District. The Regional Military Commands carry out the functions of the Provincial Military Command of the relevant province.
Special Forces Edit
The Italian Armed Forces, as well as Fascist armed corps, have a number of Special Forces units. According to the specialization, they are called "Arditi" (roughly translated as "Bold Ones", deriving from WWI elite storm troops) if they have a military role, or "Operatori" ("Operators") if they have a police special unit role:
- 10th Arditi Regiment "Col Moschin" (10° Reggimento Arditi "Col Moschin") - National Republican Army;
- National Republican Air Force Arditi Destroyers (Arditi Distruttori Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana) - National Republican Air Force;
- Arditi Incursori (Arditi Commandos) - National Republican Navy:
- Special Intervention Group (Operators) (Gruppo Intervento Speciale) - Republican Police Corps:
- National Security Operators (Operatori per la Sicurezza Nazionale) - Voluntary Militia for National Security.