The Italian Youth of the Lictor (Italian: Gioventù Italiana del Littorio, GIL) is the long-standing consolidated youth movement of the National Fascist Party; it was established in 1937, replacing several youth organizations. Its purpose is to supervise and influence the minds of all youths, that was effectively directed against the influence of the Catholic Church on youths. Therefore, it was organized as a (fascist) Scout movement, adopting its organizational and activity patterns. With the consolidation of the Republican Fascism, and with the increasing waning of unitary leadership, the GIL progressively shifted from a mere control instrument to an active political movement, relatively reducing its size and enriching itself and the Party with several political differences within Fascism. The rise of Italo Debalti in early 1990s did not stop this phase of transformation, although greatly revived the Fascist popularity among youths. Nowadays, the GIL is still subdivided into age classes, although the male/female separation is no longer adopted within the 17-21 class and almost not important within the 14-17 classes.
Nowadays, the GIL is the chain of transmission between Party and youth and youth-related social contexts, and alongside the proper political activity (called "militanza") also offers several other social activities, encompassing them in its own philosophical and political world view; while still a scouting-oriented movement, after the massive reforms it underwent to, the GIL became less inclined to use uniforms but still active in propagating both the Scouting and the Fascist ideals. Uniforms are still used for field activities, as well as for official events, such as National Camps or meetings of the governing bodies.
The youngest people eligible for GIL are 6 years old. The older limit of age for ordinary personnel is 30, but GIL officials could be older (up to 35).
Age classes Edit
The GIL is organized in several branches, 2 functional branches and 6 age/sex branches:
- Fascist University Groups (Gruppi Universitari Fascisti, GUF: University students, males and females);
- Student Action (Azione Studentesca, AS: High school students, males and females);
- Young Fascists (Giovani Fascisti, GF: males and females 16-20 years);
- Spearheads (Avanguardisti: males, 14-16 years);
- Young Italian Girls (Giovani Italiane, GI: females 14-16 years);
- Balilla (males, 11-14 years);
- Little Italian Girls (Piccole Italiane, PI: females, 11-14 years);
- Children of the Wolf (Figli della Lupa, FdL: males and females, 6-11 years).
It is to be noted that in actual practice Young Fascists, Avanguardisti and Young Italian Girls often act as a unified branch, due to the nearly-identical needs and social contexts.
Broad organization Edit
The Yalian Youth of the Lictor is the Party youth movement and as such it is a branch of the PNF, subordinated to Party Secretary. The National Commander - a position created in 1996 by the Rieti congress - is the Duce himself: he appoints all the positions in the movement. The Italian hierarchy is based on a Central Presidency, Regional, Provincial and Municipal Commissions, while each Republic has its own subdivision.
Top organization Edit
The top organization is called "Central Presidency" (Presidenza Centrale) and it is composed by the national leaders of the various age/sex branches, who are in charge for their relevant groups, and sex branches and by the National Leadership (Dirigenza Nazionale), who provide the guidance at the general and national level.
Being the National Commander a position vested in the Duce, the executive and actual leader is the "Movement Leader" (It: Capo del Movimento): he directs, coordinates and manages the movement campaigns and strategies, while the National Secretary manages the day-to-day operations and the Executive Office. In turn the Executive Office is composed of the main leaders within the GIL and carries out the main leadership and guidance functions, all being subject to the Leader's approval.
The National Council (Consiglio Nazionale) is the body which assists the Movement Leader in the formation of the political course. It takes its own decisions through the votes of political resolutions. The Council consists of 70 members; the National Leader, members of the Executive Office, Regional Heads and branch heads are de jure members of the National Council. The National Council elects the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman, who convene the meetings of the Council and direct its work.
The Movement Leader is elected by the Movement Congress and approved by the Duce; all other positions are filled by people proposed by the Leader and approved by the Duce, after having consulted the PNF National Secretary. It is to remark that the members of the Central Presidency are often quite young (up to early 30s) and quite idealistic.
Factionalism in the GIL is present, especially into the two "functional" branches (university and school branches) and into the 14-20 years organizations. Due to the absence of real power, factions of the GIL are more than the ones in the Party, and slightly different.
Right-wing young fascists are grouped within the National Youth (Gioventù Nazionale, GN), but at a school level are subdivided into the mainstream National Students Movement (Movimento Studentesco Nazionale, MSN), Students Initiative (Iniziativa Studentesca, IS, closely linked to Roberto Fiore's faction, but also sympathetic with Catholic Alliance) and some minor local groups, such as the Lacuna Front (Fronte Lagunare, FL, based in Venice) and the Julius Caesar's Place (Spazio Giulio Cesare, in Turin). Among the National Youth there is one of the most innovative communities, The Seagull (I Gabbiani).
Alemanno's followers are subdivided into two main factions: Plus Ultra and New Social Europe (Nuova Europa Sociale, NES); although the Social young fascists do not have a specific schools-related name, they are very active in Italian schools. Alongside Plus Ultra and NES, there are also some organizations based exclusively in a specific city, such as The Rome's People (Il Popolo di Roma), Atreju's Place (Spazio Atreju) in Palermo and The Naples' People (Il Popolo di Napoli), as well as sub-local groups, such as Roman "Worst Youth" or others.
The Corporativist faction is the largest one, and also in young circles is largely popular. Their youth arm is the Youth Front (Fronte della Gioventù, FdG), which is by far the largest faction within the GIL. The FdG has provided the National Leader of the GIL since late 1980s. Within the Youth Front there are several subfactions, but they are nor stable nor significant. Corporativist students usually work through the Students Corporations (Corporazioni Studentesche) or the University Corporations (Corporazioni Universitarie). The fact that there are no parallel Corporativist denominations is a source of pride for the Youth Front.