Adygea has a long and rich history, stretching back to the prehistoric era. The history of Adygea was marked by invasions and subjugation by foreign empires. However, throughout the long history of turmoil, the Adygean statehood and the Adygean nation has endured and preserved its national identity.
Ancient times Edit
Medieval Adygea Edit
In 807, the Adygeans were united under [? king], who would in 810 bring Kabardia into the kingdom and in 815-820 conquer Alania to the east. Further dynasties would bring some of the Vainakh peoples under Adygean dominion.
Mongol invasions and decline Edit
In the mid-11th century, the Adygean kingdom was faced with invasion by the Krypchaks. Though the Adygean state lost much of its north-eastern and most of its eastern territory, with the help of its ally Georgia to the south, it was able to fend the Turkic confederation off. Sporadic invasions continued until 1218, the last campaign before the Mongol Empire defeated the Krypchaks in 1241.
By the 1220s, Georgia, its Armenian vassal states, and Adygea were facing Mongol invaders. The last remnants of the Krypchaks allied themselves with the Golden Horde, and conducted several more raids into Adygean lands. By 1237, after Georgia had fallen to the Mongols, Adygea was also defeated, driven farther back to the west. At this point, Adygea had largely lost control over Alanian lands. There were many nobles that fought fiercely to retain their land, but to little effect, and by 1243 everything east of the Kuban River was effectively Mongol territory. The Mongols did not opt to cross the river, and so left the core of Adygea relatively spared from destruction. In early 1246, the Adygean king submitted to the Mongols, and agreed to acknowledge the Khan as his country's overlord, consenting to pay an annual tribute of 75,000 gold pieces and to contribute soldiers for the Mongol army.
Mongol rule in Adygea Edit
Post-Mongol kingdom Edit
In the 1400s, the area of the Caucasus changed drastically in every cultural and political sense. Only Adygea and Georgia remained, enclaves of Christianity flanked by Muslims: the Ottomans, the Vainakh and the Ak Koyunlu. During this time, Adygea fractured into several states, with only nominal alliances. Though Georgia was often fought over by the Turks and the Persians, Adygea, in a blackly ironic fashion, remained safe because Georgia was being fought over. Given the respite, King [?] led the Adygean state in a partial recovery, bolstering the economy and education system.