Corporativism is a system of economic, political, or social organization that involves association of the people of society into corporate groups, such as agricultural or business affiliations, on the basis of common interests. Corporativism is theoretically based upon the interpretation of a community as an organic body. Corporations are set up as a general criterion based on the concept of the production cycle, calling to the partecipation all categories of employers, workers and professionals and artists interested in the different stages of a particular product.
The Fascist theory of economic corporatism involves management of sectors of the economy by government or privately controlled Corporations. Each trade union or employer corporation represents its professional concerns, especially by negotiation of labour contracts and the like. This method results in harmony amongst social classes.
The Italian Social Republic involves a corporatist political system in which economy is collectively managed by employers, workers and state and party officials by formal mechanisms at the national level. Corporatism incorporates every divergent interest into the state organically.
The corporatist organization is an effective and continuous attachment point of the most dynamic and living of the population and, thereby, a privileged area of contact between the social demand and power.
Following the rise to the power of Duce Italo Debalti, Corporations were re-established as the central economic pianification and determination body, although firmly led by the State and by the Party.
Established Corporations are twenty-two in number, of which eight of the agricultural and industrial productive sector, eight of industrial and commercial productive sector, and six of the services productive sector. In addition, there is a Corporations for artists and intellectuals.
In addition to representatives of the productive sectors concerned, designated by the affiliate Recognized Trade Unions, three representatives of the PNF sit in the Council of Corporation. The Deputy President is chosen within the PNF members. Corporations are gathered in the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations, chaired by the Chief of Government or the by Minister of Corporations; secretarial services are provided by a special division of the Ministry of Corporations.
The law gives the individual Corporations several extended functions.
First of all, Corporations lay down rules for the coordination of legal and contractual assistance of the trade unions, collective agreements for the regulation and discipline of the production unit, for approval of tariffs for services and economic services and the prices of goods offered for sale in privileged conditions. Corporations also hold functions ormulazione of opinions on any matter interesting branch of economic activity subject to the Corporation, at the request of any competent public authority or on its own initiative. Thirdly, Corporations have conciliatory functions, representing a required step for the settlement of collective disputes before taking them to the magistrate of the work.
Corporation studies have for particular importance in the social field, such as the improvement and extension of social security institutions and vocational education, for the regulation of labor relations and the settlement of disputes, and the determination of wages. Corporations examine the same problems of the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations in respect of particular areas of their competence.
The surveillance of voluntary production cooperatives and processing of applications for authorization of new industrial plants are further examples of activities under the control of the Corporations.
Secondary bodies Edit
Within Corporations, several secondary bodies can be established, both permanently and on ad-hoc basis.
- Corporate Technical Committees may be established within the Corporation for the examination of questions relating to individual products.
- Special committees may also be established within each corporation and for the exercise of its normal functions, and for the fulfillment of special tasks.
- For the performance of conciliation a board composed of a president to foreign groups involved and two members representing the parties in dispute is established from time to time in the Corporation.
Chamber of Fasci and Corporations Edit
The Chamber of Fasci and Corporations is the lower legislative house of the Italian Social Republic. Accordingly to the Corporativst system, the Chamber groupes all 23 Corporations and is the central body for inter-Coproration policies.
From a Corporatist point of view, the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations is the arena where major conflicts between workers and employers are set up and resolved.
As a branch of the national legislature, the Chamber discusses and approves in plenary session, on the report of the relevant committees, the only bills listed in the establishing law:
- Those of a constitutional nature
- The general legislative powers
- Budget projects and statements of the State
All other bills are reviewed and approved by the commission, unless the Government or the same Chamber, which is authorized by the Chief of the Government, ask for discussion and vote in the plenary. The Head of Government may also determine that, for reasons of urgency motivated, to be adopted by the committee also bills for which it was ordinarily expected competence of the Plenary Assembly. The Chamber can provide advice on any question interested domestic production and, in particular, on a range of subjects including:
- The implementation and integration of the principles contained in the Charter of Work;
- Proposed legislation concerning the regulation of the production and labour;
- Framing union of the various categories;
- The recognition of trade unions and their activities to protect the interests of trades and welfare.
Recognized Trade Unions may apply to the Chamber, sitting in plenary assembly, the right to determine the rates for the professional services of their representatives to enact regulations and professional mandatory for all members of the class. It is also for the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations:
- On request of the Chief of Government, the formation of rules for coordination of care, the disciplines of labour relations established by collective agreements and any other regulatory activities of the corporations;
- On request of the trade unions, the formation of rules for the regulation of economic relations between the collective interests represented and ratification of agreements concluded between the same for such purposes.
Central Corporatist Committee Edit
The rules, rates and agreements are approved by a majority of the Council of Corporation: they are then subject to the approval of the Central Corporatist Committee, which may subject the approval of the economic agreements to acceptances of change. The agreements become mandatory when they are published by decree of the Chief of government.
The Central Corporatist Committee assumes, during vacations of the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations, the functions assigned to it. In addition, integrated properly by experts, it is, when necessary, in the Supreme Commission for Autarchy.
Provincial Corporatist Labour Inspectorates Edit
The Provincial Corporatist Labour Inspectorates (It: Ispettorati Corporativi Provinciali del Lavoro), peripheral bodies of the Ministry of Corporations dependent on its Directorate General for Corporatist Inspections (It: Direzione Generale per le Ispezioni Corporative), have the task of making working the corporative system. In addition to the tasks of direct supervision, provincial inspectorates regulate and coordinate the activities of supervision on insurance and social security systems. Finally, the Inspectorate, on behalf of the Ministry, collects news and information on the conditions and on the development of both domestic production and special activities in various productive sectors, particularly, of course, those that affect the provincial jurisdiction.
It is to note that Provincial Corporatist Labour Inspectorates do not constitute distinct peripheral administrations of the State (like Provinces and Municipalities), but are merely decentralized administration offices of the Ministry of Corporations.
Provincial Corporatist Labour Inspectorates generally consist of two operational units, which may range from Sections to Divisions according the size and the relevance of the Province:
- Ordinary vigilance, consisting of Labour Inspectors;
- Technical vigilance, con sisting of Labour Technical Inspectors.
The latter one is focused on health and safety protection enforcement on workplaces and is composed of technical experts, while the ordinary vigilance part is enforced by experts who have a law specialization. Furthermore, Labour Inspectorates are supported by the Labour M.V.S.N. personnel, who has the same functions and tasks of the Labur Inspectors (with the relevant exception of the power to resolve labour disputes).
Tasks and functions Edit
The law gives inspectorates have the following functions:
- Ensurance of proper implementation of the laws on employment in all factories, workshops , construction sites and other industrial sites in the Province of competence;
- Surveillance for the execution of the technical rules of the plants;
- Recognition of technical and hygiene conditions of individual industries;
- Collection and transmission to the Ministry of data, news and information on the condition and operation of production, sorting and remuneration of labour, on illegal strikes and their causes, results and consequences and accidents at work;
- Surveillance on technical and hygiene conditions of individual industries;
- Supervision of the proper observance of the collective bargaining agreements with generally binding value.
The individual inspectors who can work to prevent and peacefully resolve labour conflicts if invited by the parties or delegated to do so by the local Prefect.
Socialization of enterprises Edit
The socialization of the economy is a mechanism of transformation of the property in the assets of production: it is not exclusive of the capitalist, but is shared by the workers employed in the company. The socialization of enterprises was introduced by Legislative Decree of March, 23rd 1969 No. 400.
The basis of socialization is the total absence of employment: every production entity belongs equally to all its workers and capital-givers, without bosses or employees. Similarly to capitalism, the Socialization theory provides for the partial right to large private property, the freedom of economic initiative, respect for the law of "supply and demand" and free competition. The hierarchy and the distribution of the profits of large companies is decided by consensus of all organized workers in the company.
The socialization of the enterprises is based on the concept of "Proprietary corporation".
Proprietary Corporation Edit
The Proprietary Corporation is a cardinal principle of the economic order of the Italian Social Republic; it arises from a theory of Ugo Spirito and Sergio Panucci, for the first time expressed during the II Congress of Studies unions and corporate, held in Ferrara in May 1932. With the "Proprietary Corporation" it is meant the public law holding, in order to ensure that the Capital shares the profit-gaining and decision-making. The Proprietary Corporation allows the participation of control to shareholders, passive subject from the perspective of productivity and employment, and to workers of the company.
In this way, the worker has the authentic protagonist of the company in which, for equal rights, members are all those who exert a productive activity and the capital goes from shareholders to workers, who become owners of the corporation for their share in accordance of the particular hierarchical layers.
The difference with the exclusively privately held company is the end of the exclusive role of the Capitalist. The ownership itself is held by the company's own Corporation; however, the capitalist still has an indirect say in the Corporative bodies.
The Proprietary Corporation is the realization of the Fascist conception of class collaboration, eliminating the distinction between employer and employee; in addition, the large productive properties are regulated by public mechanisms. The organization of the company is responsible for the production before the State: with the Proprietary Corporation large-scale capitalism is overcome and the self-disciplining "Nation of Producers" is given rise. In this way, decisions enacted by the Chamber of Fasces and Corporations are nearer to individual worker and the individual entrepreneur.