The Constitution of the Russian EmpireEdit
Realizing that we today have come to a turning point in history and that as a people we are on the threshold of an new national order which promises to usher in an era of peace, prosperity, justice and harmony; Aware of the misery and conflicts caused by ever increasing disparity between rich and poor; Conscious of our obligation to posterity to save our people from imminent and total annihilation; Conscious that Russia must be one despite the existence of diverse races, creeds, ideologies and cultures and that the principle of unity in diversity is the basis for a new age when war shall be outlawed and peace prevail; when basic human rights and responsibilities shall be shared by all without discrimination; Conscious of the inescapable reality that the greatest hope for the survival of life for our people is the establishment of a democratic government; We, citizens of the old Rome, hereby resolve to establish a Russian Federation to be governed in accordance with this constitution.
Article 1- Basic Structure of Federation and the Federal GovernmentEdit
1. The Russian Federation shall be organized as a national federation, to include all subjects and all people, and to encompass all oceans, seas and lands of Russia.
2. The Government for the Russian Federation shall be non-military and shall be democratic in its own structure.
3. The authority and powers granted to the Federal Government shall be limited to those defined in this Constitution for the Russian Federation, applicable to problems and affairs which transcend sub-national boundaries, leaving to sub-national governments jurisdiction over the internal affairs of the respective subjects but consistent with the authority of the Federal Government to protect universal human rights as defined in this Constitution.
Article 2- Organs of the Federal GovernmentEdit
The organs of the Federal Government shall be:
- The Federal Executive.
- The Federal Assembly.
- The Federal Judiciary.
Article 3- Grant of Specific Powers to the Federal GovernmentEdit
The powers of the federal government to be exercised through its several organs and agencies shall comprise the following:
1. Prevent wars and armed conflicts among the subjects and people of Russia.
2. Supervise and regulate all lethal weapons
3. Prohibit incitement to war, and discrimination against or defamation of conscientious objectors.
4. Provide the means for peaceful and just solutions of disputes and conflicts among or between subjects, peoples, and/or other components within the Russian Federation.
5. Supervise boundary settlements and conduct plebiscites as needed.
6. Define the boundaries for the subjects, districts, and divisions that are established for electoral, administrative, judicial and other purposes of the Federal Government.
7. Define and regulate procedures for the nomination and election of the Premier of Russia as well as members of each house of the Federal Assembly, and for the nomination, election, appointment and employment of all Federal Government officials and personnel.
8. Codify national laws for the Russian Federation.
9. Establish universal standards for weights, measurements, accounting and records.
10. Provide assistance in the event of large-scale calamities, including drought, famine, pestilence, flood, earthquake, hurricane, ecological disruptions and other disasters.
11. Guarantee and enforce the civil liberties and the basic human rights, which are defined in the Bill of Rights for the Citizens of Russia, which is made a part of this Constitution under Article VIII.
12. Define standards and promote national improvements in working conditions, nutrition, health, housing, human settlements, environmental conditions, education, economic security, and other conditions defined under Article 13 of this Constitution.
13. Regulate and supervise national transportation, communications, postal services, and the migration of people.
14. Regulate and supervise national trade, industry, corporations, businesses, cartels, professional services, labor supply, finances, investments and insurance.
15. Raise the revenues and funds, by direct and/or indirect means, which are necessary for the purposes and activities of the Federal Government.
16. Establish and operate national financial, banking, credit and insurance institutions designed to serve human needs; establish, issue and regulate a national currency, credit and exchange.
17. Plan for and regulate the development, use, conservation, and re-cycling of the natural resources of Russia for the protection the environment for the benefit of both present and future generations.
18. Develop and implement solutions to national problems of food supply, agricultural production, soil fertility, soil conservation, pest control, diet, nutrition, drugs and poisons, and the disposal of toxic wastes.
19. Develop and implement means to control population growth in relation to the life-support capacities of Russia, and solve problems of population distribution.
20. Develop, protect, regulate and conserve the water supplies of Russia; develop, operate and/or coordinate national irrigation and other water supply and control projects.
21. Establish, operate and/or coordinate national airlines, ocean transport systems, national railways and highways, communication systems, and control and administer vital waterways.
22. Develop, operate and/or coordinate national power systems, or networks of small units.
23. Control the mining, production, transportation and use of fossil sources of energy to the extent necessary to reduce and prevent damages to the environment and the ecology, as well as to prevent conflicts and conserve supplies for sustained use by succeeding generations.
24. Exercise exclusive jurisdiction and control over nuclear energy research and testing and nuclear power production, including the right to prohibit any form of testing or production considered hazardous.
25. Place under national control essential natural resources, which may be limited or unevenly distributed about Russia. Find and implement ways to reduce wastes and find ways to minimize disparities when development or production is insufficient to supply everybody with all that may be needed.
26. Provide for the examination and assessment of technological innovations which are or may be of national consequence, to determine possible hazards or perils to humanity or the environment; institute such controls and regulations of technology as may be found necessary to prevent or correct widespread hazards or perils to human health and welfare.
27. Carry out intensive programs to develop safe alternatives to any technology or technological processes, which may be hazardous to the environment, the ecological system, or human health and welfare.
28. Resolve national problems caused by gross disparities in technological development or capability, capital formation, availability of natural resources, educational opportunity, economic opportunity, and wage and price differentials. Assist the processes of technology transfer under conditions, which safeguard human welfare and the environment and contribute to minimizing disparities.
29. Organize, coordinate a voluntary, military service to carry out a wide variety of projects designed to defend and secure the Russian Federation.
30. Designate a national language for the Russian Federation.
31. Establish and operate a system of national parks, wild life preserves, natural places, and wilderness areas.
32. Establish such departments, bureaus, commissions, institutes, corporations, administrations, or agencies as may by needed to carry out any and all of the functions and powers of the Federal Government.
33. Serve the needs of Russia in any and all ways, which are now, or may prove in the future to be, beyond the capacity of local governments.
Article 4- The Federal ExecutiveEdit
Sec. A- Functions and Powers of the Federal ExecutiveEdit
1. To implement the basic system of national law as defined in this constitution.
2. To implement legislation enacted by the Federal Assembly.
3. To propose and recommend legislation for enactment by the Federal Assembly.
4. To supervise the Executive Administration and all of the departments, bureaus, offices, institutes and agencies thereof.
5. To nominate, select and remove the heads of various organs, branches, departments, bureaus, offices, commissions, institutes, agencies and other parts of the Federal Executive, in accordance with the provisions of this constitution and as specified in measures enacted by the Federal Assembly.
6. To prepare and submit annually to the Federal Assembly a comprehensive budget for the operations of the national government, and to prepare and submit periodically budget projections over periods of several years.
7. To define and propose priorities for world legislation and budgetary allocations.
8. To be held accountable to the Federal Assembly for any infraction made which goes against any guideline of this constitution.
Sec. B- Composition of the Federal ExecutiveEdit
The Federal Executive shall consist of: - A Tsar of whom is crown from a hereditary line.
Sec. C- The TsarEdit
1. The Tsar shall have full executive power over Russia due to their divine right to rule.
2. Decisions not requiring the approval of the Federal Assembly made by the Tsar shall be considered final.
3.The Tsar shall have power over the military, giving them the title of Marshal of the Russian Federation. Due to this status of Marshal of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Defense is directly overseen by the Premier as well.
4. The Tsar may be removed for cause by an absolute majority vote of the State Duma once an initial vote of impeachment is called upon and seconded. Once removed the Tsar will be replaced by the next in line to the thrown.
Sec. D- Procedures of the Federal ExecutiveEdit
1. The Tsar shall be responsible for preparing and submitting to the Federal Assembly the proposed annual budget, and budgetary projections over periods of years.
Sec. E- Limitations on the Federal ExecutiveEdit
1. The Federal Executive shall not at any time alter, suspend, abridge, infringe or otherwise violate any provision of this Constitution or any legislation or law enacted or approved by the Federal Assembly in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
2. The Federal Executive may not dissolve the Federal Assembly or any House therein.
3. The Federal Executive may not act contrary to decisions of the Federal Courts.
4. The Federal Executive shall be bound to faithfully execute all legislation passed by the Federal Assembly in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
5. The Federal Executive may not transcend or contradict the decisions or controls of the Federal Assembly, the Federal Judiciary or the Provisions of this Constitution by any device of executive order or executive privilege or emergency declaration or decree.
Article 6- The Federal AssemblyEdit
Sec. A- Functions and Powers of the Federal AssemblyEdit
The functions and powers of the Federal Assembly shall comprise the following:
1. To prepare and enact detailed legislation in all areas of authority and jurisdiction granted by this Constitution.
2. To amend or repeal laws as may be found necessary or desirable.
3. To establish such regulations and directions as may be needed, consistent with this constitution, for the proper functioning of all organs, branches, departments, bureaus, commissions, institutes, agencies or parts of the Government.
4. To review, amend and give final approval to each budget for the Federal Government, as submitted by the Federal Executive; to devise the specific means for directly raising funds needed to fulfill the budget, including taxes, licenses, fees, nationally accounted social and public costs which must be added into the prices for goods and services, loans and credit advances, and any other appropriate means; and to appropriate and allocate funds for all operations and functions of the Government in accordance with approved budgets, but subject to the right of the Federal Assembly to revise any appropriation not yet spent or contractually committed.
5. To create, alter, abolish or consolidate the departments, bureaus, commissions, institutes, agencies or other parts of the Federal Government as may be needed for the best functioning of the several organs of the Federal Government, subject to the specific provisions of this Constitution.
6. To approve the appointments of the heads of all major departments, commissions, offices, agencies and other parts of the several organs of the Federal Government, except those chosen by electoral procedures or chosen by the Tsar.
7. To remove from office for cause any member of the Federal Executive, and any elective or appointive head of any organ, department, office, agency or other part of the Federal Government, subject to the specific provisions in this Constitution concerning specific offices.
8. To define and revise the boundaries of the Electoral and Administrative Districts.
Sec. B- Composition of the Federal AssemblyEdit
The Federal Assembly shall be composed of two houses, designated as follows:
- The Imperial State Court, the upper house;
- The State Duma, the lower house.
Sec. C- The Imperial State CourtEdit
1. The Imperial State Court shall be composed of the various nobles from those house of whom the Tsar has granted a seat to within the court.
2. Seats of the Imperial State Court shall be open to all nobles of age 18 and above of those houses granted entrance by the Tsar.
3. Term of service for the Imperial State Court shall be for the lifetime of each noble.
3. From among the members of the Imperial State Court, A Prime Minister shall be appointed by the Tsar.
4. The Prime Minister shall have full authority over the Federal Assembly and shall only be subordinate to the Tsar. The Prime Minister shall prepare and present to the Federal Assembly near the beginning of each year a proposed program of legislation. The Prime Minister may propose other legislation during the year.
5. The Prime Minister may be removed for cause by an absolute majority vote of the State Duma once an initial vote of impeachment is called upon and seconded.
6. The term of office for the Prime Minister shall run concurrently with the length of which his/her Tsar remains on the thrown of Russia
7. The Imperial State Court of Russia shall be host to several ministries. The Tsar shall appointed various titled noblemen and women to serve in these ministries. Each appointed noble that serves as the head of a department or agency shall be designated as Minister of the particular department or agency.
8. Ministers of the various department or agency of the Imperial State Court of Russia shall prepare an annual report for the particular department or agency, to be submitted both to the Tsar and to the Federal Assembly.
9. Ministers either individually or collectively may be removed for cause by an absolute majority vote by the State Duma.
10. The term of office for a minister shall run concurrently with the length of which his/her Tsar remains on the thrown of Russia.
Sec. D– The State DumaEdit
1. The State Duma shall be composed of delegates elected from each electoral and administrative district with number of delegates being determined by the following:
- One delegate from each district of at least 1,000,000 in population.
- Each district is allowed another delegate for every 100,000 people that are added to the original 1,000,000.
2. Delegates of the State Duma shall be referred to as Deputies and shall be elected by universal adult suffrage, open to all persons of age 18 and above.
3. Each deputy may serve a two-year term, and can be elected to serve two successive terms.
4. A Candidate for election to serve as a deputy of the State Duma shall be a citizen for at least two years of the district to be represented, must be at least 21 years of age, and shall take a pledge of service to Russia.
5. A panel of four vice-chairpersons and one head chairperson shall be appoint by the deputies of the State Duma. Their task shall be the head the State Duma and preside over it during each session. The Chairperson and four Vice-chairpersons may only serve on this panel for as long as they serve as a deputy in the State Duma.
Sec. F- Procedures of the Federal AssemblyEdit
1. Any legislative measure or action may be initiated in either of the two houses or both concurrently, and shall become effective when passed by a simple majority vote of both the Imperial State Court and the State Duma, and signed by the Tsar.
2. In case of deadlock on a measure initiated in either the two houses, the measure shall then automatically go to the Tsar for a final decision. Any measure may be referred for final decision to the Tsar by a concurrent vote of the other two houses.
3. The Tsar and/or Prime Minister may initiate any legislative measure, which shall then be submitted to the other two houses and must be passed by simple majority vote to become effective.
4. Each house of the Federal Assembly shall adopt its own detailed rules of procedure, which shall by consistent with the procedures set forth in this Constitution, and which shall be designed to facilitate coordinated functioning of the two houses.
5. Regular sessions of the Imperial State Court and the State Duma shall convene on the second Monday of January of each and every Year.
6. Bi-elections to fill vacancies shall be held within three months from occurrence of the vacancy or vacancies.
7. The Federal Assembly shall remain in session for a minimum of nine months of each year. One or two breaks may be taken during each year, at times and for durations to be decided by simple majority vote of the Imperial State Court and State Duma sitting jointly.
8. Annual salaries for members of the Federal Assembly shall be the same, except for those who serve also as chairpersons.
9. Any law enacted by the Federal Assembly can be vetoed by the Tsar at their discretion and that veto cannot be overridden by any sort of review.
Article 7- The Federal JudiciaryEdit
Sec. A- Jurisdiction of the Federal Supreme CourtEdit
1. A Federal Supreme Court shall be established, together with such subject and district Courts as may subsequently be found necessary. The Federal Supreme Court shall comprise a number of benches.
2. The Federal Supreme Court, together with such subject and district Courts as may be established, shall have mandatory jurisdiction in all cases, actions, disputes, conflicts, violations of law, civil suits, guarantees of civil and human rights, constitutional interpretations, and other litigations arising under the provisions of this Constitution.
3. Decisions of the Federal Supreme Court shall be binding on all parties involved in all cases, actions and litigations brought before any bench of the Federal Supreme Court for settlement. Each bench of the Federal Supreme Court shall constitute a court of highest appeal, except when matters of extra-ordinary public importance are assigned or transferred to the Superior Tribunal of the Federal Supreme Court, as provided in Section E of Article VII.
Sec. B- Benches of the Federal Supreme CourtEdit
The benches of the Federal Supreme Court and their respective jurisdictions shall be as follows:
1. Bench for Human Rights: To deal with issues of human rights arising under the guarantee of civil and human rights provided by Article VII of this Constitution, and arising in pursuance of the provisions of Article VII of this Constitution, and arising otherwise under legislation and the body of law approved by the Federal Assembly.
2. Bench for Criminal Cases: To deal with issues arising from the violation of Russian laws and legislation by individuals, corporations, groups and associations, but not issues primarily concerned with human rights.
3. Bench for Civil Cases: To deal with issues involving civil law suits and disputes between individuals, corporations, groups and associations arising under legislation and law and the administration thereof.
4. Bench for Constitutional Cases: To deal with the interpretation of this Constitution and with issues and actions arising in connection with the interpretation of this Constitution.
5. Bench for Interregional Conflicts: To deal with disputes, conflicts and legal contest arising between or among the Subjects, which have joined in the Federation of Russia.
6. Bench for Public Cases: To deal with issues not under the jurisdiction of another bench arising from conflicts, disputes, civil suits or other legal contests between the Federal Government and corporations, groups or individuals, or between subject governments and corporations, groups or individuals.
7. Advisory Bench: To give opinions upon request on any legal question arising under Russian law or legislation, exclusive of contests or actions involving interpretation of this Constitution. Any House or committee of the Federal Assembly, by the Premier, or any Administrative Department, may request advisory opinions.
8. Other benches may be established, combined or terminated upon recommendation of the Collegium of Judges with approval by the Federal Assembly; but benches number one through seven may not be combined nor terminated except by amendment of this Constitution.
Sec. C- Seat of the Federal Supreme CourtEdit
1. The seat of the Federal Supreme Court and all benches shall be the same as the Federal Assembly and the Federal Executive, which is Moscow.
Sec. D- The Collegium of JudgesEdit
1. A Collegium of Judges shall be established by the Federal Assembly and shall consist of a minimum of twenty member judges, and may be expanded as needed but not to exceed sixty members.
2. The Judges to compose the Collegium shall be nominated by the Federation Council and shall be elected by plurality vote of the two house of the Federal Assembly in joint session. The Federation Council shall nominate between two and three times the number of judges to be elected at any one time.
3. The term of office for a Judge shall be ten years. Successive terms may be served without limit.
4. The Collegium of Judges shall elect a Presiding Council of Judges, consisting of a Chief Justice and four Associate Chief Justices. Members of the Presiding Council of Judges shall serve five-year terms on the Presiding Council, and may serve two successive terms, but not two successive terms as Chief Justice.
5. The Presiding Council of Judges shall assign all Judges, including themselves, to the several benches of the Federal Supreme Court. Each bench shall have a minimum of three Judges, except that the number of Judges for the bench on Interregional conflicts and the Appellate bench shall be no less than five.
6. The member judges of each bench shall choose annually a Presiding Judge, who may serve two successive terms.
7. The members of the several benches may be reconstituted from time to time as may seem desirable or necessary upon the decision of the Presiding Council of Judges. Any decision to re-constitute a bench shall be referred to a vote of the entire Collegium of Judges by request of any single Judge.
8. Any Judge may be removed from office for cause by an absolute two-thirds majority vote of the two Houses of the Federal Assembly in joint session.
9. Qualifications for Judges of the Federal Supreme Court shall be at least ten years of legal or juristic experience, minimum age of thirty years, and evident competence in Russian law and the humanities.
10. The salaries, expenses, remunerations and prerogatives of the Judges shall be determined by the Federal Assembly, and shall be reviewed every five years, but shall not be changed to the disadvantage of any Judge during a term of office. All members of the Collegium of Judges shall receive the same salaries, except that additional compensation may be given to the Presiding Council of Judges.
11. Upon recommendation by the Collegium of Judges, the Federal Assembly shall have the authority to establish subject and district courts below the Federal Supreme Court, and to establish the jurisdictions thereof, and the procedures for appeal to the Federal Supreme Court or to the several benches thereof.
12. The detailed rules of procedure for the functioning of the Federal Supreme Court, the Collegium of Judges, and for each bench of the Federal Supreme Court, shall be decided and amended by absolute majority vote of the Collegium of Judges.
Sec. E- The Superior Tribunal of the Federal Supreme CourtEdit
1. A Superior Tribunal of the Federal Supreme Court shall be established to take cases, which are considered to be of extra-ordinary public importance. The Superior Tribunal for any calendar year shall consist of the Presiding Council of Judges together with four members from both houses of the Federal Assembly. The composition of the Superior Tribunal may be continued unchanged for a second year by decision of the Presiding Council of Judges.
2. Any party to any dispute, issue, case or litigation coming under the jurisdiction of the Federal Supreme Court, may apply to any particular bench of the Federal Supreme Court or to the Presiding Council of Judges for the assignment or transfer of the case to the Superior Tribunal on the grounds of extra-ordinary public importance. If the application is granted, the case shall be heard and disposed of by the Superior Tribunal. Also, any bench taking any particular case, if satisfied that the case is of extra-ordinary public importance, may of its own discretion transfer the case to the Superior Tribunal.
Article 8- Bill of Rights for the Citizens of RussiaEdit
The inhabitants and citizens of Russia who are within the Federation shall have certain inalienable rights defined hereunder. It shall be mandatory for the Federal Assembly, the Federal Executive, and all organs and agencies of the Federal Government to honor, implement and enforce these rights, as well as for the governments of all member subjects in the Federation to do likewise. Individuals or groups suffering violation or neglect of such rights shall have full recourse through the Federal Supreme Courts for redress of grievances. The inalienable rights shall include the following:
1. Equal rights for all citizens of the Federation, with no discrimination on any grounds
2. Equal protection and application of Russian legislation and laws for all citizens of the Federation.
3. Freedom of thought and conscience, speech, press, writing, communication, expression, publication, broadcasting, telecasting, and cinema, except as an overt part of or incitement to violence, armed riot or insurrection.
4. Freedom of assembly, association, organization, petition and peaceful demonstration.
5. Freedom to vote without duress, and freedom for political organization and campaigning without censorship or recrimination.
6. Freedom to profess, practice and promote religious or religious beliefs or no religion or religious belief.
7. Freedom to profess and promote political beliefs or no political beliefs.
8. Freedom for investigation, research and reporting.
9. Prohibition against slavery, peonage, involuntary servitude, and conscription of labor.
10. Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests.
11. Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment.
12. Right of habeas corpus; no ex-post-facto laws; no double jeopardy; right to refuse self-incrimination or the incrimination of another.
13. Prohibition against private armies and paramilitary organizations as being threats to the common peace and safety of the Federation.
14. Safety of property from arbitrary seizure; protection against exercise of the power of eminent domain without reasonable compensation.
15. Right to family planning and free public assistance to achieve family planning objectives.
16. Right of privacy of person, family and association; prohibition against surveillance as a means of political control.
Article 9- Directive Principles for the Federal GovernmentEdit
It shall be the aim of the Federal Government of the Russian Federation to secure certain other rights for all inhabitants within the Federation, but without immediate guarantee of universal achievement and enforcement. These rights are defined as Directive Principles, obligating the Federal Government to pursue every reasonable means for universal realization and implementation, and shall include the following:
1. Equal opportunity for useful employment for everyone, with wages or remuneration sufficient to assure human dignity.
2. Freedom of choice in work, occupation, employment or profession.
3. Full access to information and to the accumulated knowledge of the human race.
4. Free and adequate public education available to everyone, extending to the university level; Equal opportunities for elementary and higher education for all persons; equal opportunity for continued education for all persons throughout life.
5. Free and adequate public health services and medical care available to everyone throughout life under conditions of free choice.
6. Equal opportunity for leisure time for everyone; better distribution of the workload of society so that every person may have equitable leisure time opportunities.
7. Equal opportunity for everyone to enjoy the benefits of scientific and technological discoveries and developments.
8. Protection for everyone against the hazards and perils of technological innovations and developments.
9. Protection of the natural environment, which is the common heritage of humanity against pollution, ecological disruption or damage, which could imperil life or lower the quality of life.
10. Conservation of those natural resources of Russia, which are limited, so that present and future generations may continue to enjoy life in Russia.
11. Assurance for everyone of adequate housing, of adequate and nutritious food supplies, of safe and adequate water supplies, of pure air, and in general for the continuance of an environment which can sustain healthy living for all.
12. Assure to each child the right to the full realization of his or her potential.
13. Social Security for everyone to relieve the hazards of unemployment, sickness, old age, family circumstances, disability, catastrophes of nature, and technological change, and to allow retirement with sufficient lifetime income for living under conditions of human dignity during older age.
14. Rapid elimination of and prohibitions against technological hazards and man-made environmental disturbances, which are found to create dangers to life in Russia.
15. Implementation of intensive programs to discover, develop and institute safe alternatives and practical substitutions for technologies which must be eliminated and prohibited because of hazards and dangers to life.
16. Encouragement for cultural diversity; encouragement for decentralized administration.
17. Freedom for peaceful self-determination for minorities, refugees and dissenters.
18. Prohibition against the death penalty.
Article 10- Safeguards and ReservationsEdit
Sec. A- Certain SafeguardsEdit
The Federal Government shall operate to secure for all subjects and peoples within the Federation the safeguards, which are defined hereunder:
1. Guarantee that full faith and credit shall be given to the public acts, records, legislation and judicial proceedings of the member subjects within the Federation, consistent with the several provisions of this Constitution.
2. Assure freedom of choice within the member subjects of the Federation to determine their internal political and economic systems, consistent with the guarantees and protections given under this Constitution to assure civil liberties and human rights and a safe environment for life, and otherwise consistent with the several provisions of this Constitution.
3. Grant the right of asylum within the Federation for persons who may seek refuge from countries or nations outside the Federation.
4. Grant the right of individuals and groups to peacefully leave the hegemony of the Federation.
Sec. B- Reservation of PowersEdit
The powers not delegated to the Federal Government by this Constitution shall be reserved to the subjects of the Federation and to the people therein.
Article 11 - AmendmentsEdit
1. Amendments to this Constitution may be proposed for consideration in two ways:
- By a simple majority vote of any House of the Federal Assembly.
- By petitions signed by a total of 2,000,000 persons eligible to vote in national elections from a total of at least ten electoral and administrative Districts.
2. Passage of any amendment proposed by a House of the Federal Assembly shall require an absolute two-thirds majority vote of each of the two Houses of the Federal Assembly voting separately.
3. An amendment proposed by popular petition shall first require endorsement from at least 5 members of the State Duma. Passage of the amendment shall then require an absolute two-thirds majority vote of each of the two Houses of the Federal Assembly voting separately.
4. Periodically, but no later than 30 years after first convening the Federal Assembly and every 20 years thereafter, the Members of the Federal Assembly shall meet in special session comprising a Constitutional Convention to conduct a review of this Constitution to consider and propose possible amendments, which shall then require action as specified in Section F of Article IX for passage
5. Except by following the amendment procedures specified herein, no part of this Constitution may be set aside, suspended or subverted, neither for emergencies nor caprice nor convenience.